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Meghan Markle ‘gifted Kate Middleton a Smythson notebook to break the ice when they met’

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meghan markle gifted kate middleton a smythson notebook to break the ice when they met

Meghan Markle gifted Kate Middleton a Smythson notebook the first time the pair met to help break the ice, according to the new bombshell biography about the Sussexes.

In Finding Freedom, which is released next week, authors Omid Scobie and Carolyn Durand say The Duchess of Cambridge loved the book from her future sister-in-law which she was gifted in January 2017.

They wrote: ‘Meghan bought a present for the duchess, who had celebrated her birthday just a day earlier. 

‘The soft leather Smythson notebook helped to break the ice, as did Meghan’s cooing over then 20-month-old Charlotte.’

Kate is currently staying at Amner Hall in Norfolk with Prince William and the couple’s children Prince George, seven, Princess Charlotte, five, and Prince Louis, two. Meanwhile, Meghan is living in her native Los Angeles with Prince Harry and their son Archie, one.  

Meghan Markle gifted Kate Middleton a Symthson notebook the first time the pair met to help break the ice, according to the new bombshell biography about the Sussexes. The pair are pictured together on Christmas Day 2018 at Sandrinham in Norfolk

Meghan Markle gifted Kate Middleton a Symthson notebook the first time the pair met to help break the ice, according to the new bombshell biography about the Sussexes. The pair are pictured together on Christmas Day 2018 at Sandrinham in Norfolk

Meghan Markle gifted Kate Middleton a Symthson notebook the first time the pair met to help break the ice, according to the new bombshell biography about the Sussexes. The pair are pictured together on Christmas Day 2018 at Sandrinham in Norfolk

The Duchess of Cambridge was spotted carrying her speech notes in a monogrammed Smythson of Bond Street folder as she attended the ‘Back to Nature’ Festival at RHS Wisley in Saptember last year, but it’s not known if this was the stationery item gifted by Meghan.

Smythson notebooks seem to be a go-to for the Duchess of Sussex; in August 2019, Meghan sent personalised thank you gifts to British Vogue contributors who helped her on the issue of the fashion bible which she guest edited.

The Duchess sent her writers a personalised black leather notebook engraved with ‘Forces For Change’.

And it appears the upmarket quintessentially British brand, founded in 1887 by Frank Smythson, has become a popular stationery and accessories choice for royals.

The Duchess of Cambridge was spotted carrying her speech notes in a Smythson of Bond Street folder as she attended the 'Back to Nature' Festival at RHS Wisley in Surrey in September

The Duchess of Cambridge was spotted carrying her speech notes in a Smythson of Bond Street folder as she attended the 'Back to Nature' Festival at RHS Wisley in Surrey in September

The Duchess of Cambridge was spotted carrying her speech notes in a Smythson of Bond Street folder as she attended the ‘Back to Nature’ Festival at RHS Wisley in Surrey in September

As well as Kate’s book, which was engraved with a gold monogrammed ‘C’ complete with a crown, Smythson has long been a favoured brand among the upper echelons of high society. 

Its brightly-coloured, hand-embossed diaries, notecards and travel wallets are beloved by the likes of Madonna, Dame Helen Mirren and Samantha Cameron – who was once an adviser to the company. 

The brand holds three Royal Warrants, a mark of recognition of those who have supplied goods or services to the Households of HM The Queen, HRH The Duke of Edinburgh or HRH The Prince of Wales for at least five years, and who have an ongoing trading arrangement. 

The team at social enterprise Luminary Bakery received a handwritten letter from Meghan alongside a black leather notebook emblazoned with 'Forces For Change', both pictured after her issue of Vogue in 2019

The team at social enterprise Luminary Bakery received a handwritten letter from Meghan alongside a black leather notebook emblazoned with 'Forces For Change', both pictured after her issue of Vogue in 2019

The team at social enterprise Luminary Bakery received a handwritten letter from Meghan alongside a black leather notebook emblazoned with ‘Forces For Change’, both pictured after her issue of Vogue in 2019

Kate, 38, was seen carrying a navy leather folder, engraved with a gold monogrammed 'C' complete with a crown, at the horticultural event last summer

Kate, 38, was seen carrying a navy leather folder, engraved with a gold monogrammed 'C' complete with a crown, at the horticultural event last summer

Kate, 38, was seen carrying a navy leather folder, engraved with a gold monogrammed ‘C’ complete with a crown, at the horticultural event last summer

The company’s first shop was opened in 1887 by Frank Smythson, a silversmith by training, on New Bond Street.

It supplied London society with high-class stationery, but it was the featherweight diaries that really made Smythson’s name.

The calf leather Panama Diary was created in 1906, and has been a bestseller ever since.

Katharine Hepburn and Grace Kelly had Smythson diaries – Hepburn’s was stamped with ‘London, New York, California’ in gold.

Meghan apparently won Kate over by 'breaking the ice' with Princess Charlotte by cooing over her when she was 20-months-old. Kate and Charlotte are pictured at Harry and Meghan's wedding

Meghan apparently won Kate over by 'breaking the ice' with Princess Charlotte by cooing over her when she was 20-months-old. Kate and Charlotte are pictured at Harry and Meghan's wedding

Meghan apparently won Kate over by ‘breaking the ice’ with Princess Charlotte by cooing over her when she was 20-months-old. Kate and Charlotte are pictured at Harry and Meghan’s wedding

Samantha Cameron, then the firm’s creative director, launched the ‘Nancy’ and ‘Daphne’ models in 2007.

Smythson was bought in April 2005 by a group of prominent City figures for some £15.8million, by which point Samantha had worked her way up to the company’s creative director. 

Despite rumoured rifts between the Sussexes and Cambridges, Meghan and Kate initially seemed to hit it off.

Speaking about meeting each other’s family during Harry and Meghan’s engagement interview with the BBC in November 2017, Meghan said: ‘His family has been so welcoming. The family has been great and over the past year and a half we’ve just had a really nice time getting to know them and progressively helping me feel a part of not just the institution but also part of the family, which has been really special.’  

In Finding Freedom, which is released next week, authors Omid Scobie and Carolyn Durand say The Duchess of Cambridge loved the book from her future sister-in-law which she was gifted in January 2017

In Finding Freedom, which is released next week, authors Omid Scobie and Carolyn Durand say The Duchess of Cambridge loved the book from her future sister-in-law which she was gifted in January 2017

In Finding Freedom, which is released next week, authors Omid Scobie and Carolyn Durand say The Duchess of Cambridge loved the book from her future sister-in-law which she was gifted in January 2017

In the book, Scobie and Duran claim relations between the Sussexes and the Cambridges grew so bitter that by March 2020 the couples were barely speaking. 

Scobie and Duran say they have spoken to more than 100 sources including ‘close friends of Harry and Meghan’s, royal aides and palace staff (past and present)’, with all the information in the book having ‘at least two sources.’ 

The Duke and Duchess deny giving any interviews or contributing to the book directly, but the intimate nature of some details raises questions over who the sources were. 

The explosive biography has claimed Prince Harry and Meghan Markle ‘hurt’ the Queen by unilaterally mapping out their future royal roles without her approval. 

Her Majesty is said to have been ‘blindsided’ by the launch of the SussexRoyal website which accompanied their Megxit announcement in January.  

There are also fears the book’s publication could spark a fresh rift within the Royal Family.

The Duke of Sussex, who now lives in Los Angeles with Meghan and their son Archie after the couple stepped down as working royals, made no mention of the book’s publication when he spoke at a virtual summit this week.

Finding Freedom: The bombshell revelations from Harry and Meghan’s biography 

Harry and William fell out, when Duke of Sussex branded older brother a ‘snob’

Prince Harry took offence when his ‘snobby’ brother cautioned him not to rush into marrying Meghan Markle. 

Harry took offence when William told him: ‘Take as much time as you need to get to know this girl.’

Harry is said to have considered the choice of the words ‘this girl’ to be condescending.

‘In those last two words, ‘this girl’, Harry heard the tone of snobbishness that was anathema to his approach to the world,’ claims the book. ‘During his ten-year career in the military, outside the Royal bubble, he had learnt not to make snap judgments about people based on their accent, education, ethnicity, class or profession.’

Prince Harry took offence when his 'snobby' brother cautioned him not to rush into marrying Meghan Markle. Pictured: The brothers with Meghan Markle and Kate Middle at Westminster Abbey in 2018

Prince Harry took offence when his 'snobby' brother cautioned him not to rush into marrying Meghan Markle. Pictured: The brothers with Meghan Markle and Kate Middle at Westminster Abbey in 2018

Prince Harry took offence when his ‘snobby’ brother cautioned him not to rush into marrying Meghan Markle. Pictured: The brothers with Meghan Markle and Kate Middle at Westminster Abbey in 2018

Meghan was disappointed Kate never reached out

 Kate Middleton and Meghan Markle never became friends – while the Duchess of Sussex was ‘disappointed’ she never reached out to her or visited.

 The Duchesses ‘struggled to move past distance politeness’ and had ‘nothing in common other than the fact that they lived at Kensington Palace’, according to the authors of Finding Freedom.

In one particularly awkward encounter when Meghan was dating Harry, Kate went alone in her Range Rover on a shopping trip – despite the fact Meghan was also going to the same street.

The lack of any friendship between the pair was confirmed in 2018 when the Sussexes announced they wanted to base their family at Windsor.

Despite this frostiness, Meghan felt hurt at newspaper stories of the ‘duelling duchesses’ and was angry at the failure of the palace press office to correct them.

Kate Middleton and Meghan Markle never became friends - while the Duchess of Sussex was 'disappointed' she never reached out to her or visited. The pair are pictured at Wimbledon together in 2018

Kate Middleton and Meghan Markle never became friends - while the Duchess of Sussex was 'disappointed' she never reached out to her or visited. The pair are pictured at Wimbledon together in 2018

Kate Middleton and Meghan Markle never became friends – while the Duchess of Sussex was ‘disappointed’ she never reached out to her or visited. The pair are pictured at Wimbledon together in 2018

Courtiers branded Meghan Markle a ‘showgirl with lots of baggage’ and said ‘there’s something about her I don’t trust’ 

A courtier in the Royal Household has said ‘there is something I don’t trust’ about Meghan Markle, the book claims.

The book, Finding Freedom, claims as soon as Meghan was introduced to members of the Royal Household, tensions emerged.

One source claimed: ‘She comes with a lot of baggage.’ Another suggested: There’s just something about her I don’t trust.’

Another described Meghan as ‘Harry’s showgirl

Harry was convinced he was going to marry Meghan after the second date

The biography describes in detail the couple’s first date in Soho, London, which went so well that Meghan later confided in a friend: ‘Do I sound crazy when I say this could have legs?’.

Before arriving in the capital she had also told a confidant that she’d be happy for ‘a nice English gentleman to flirt with’ while promoting Suits in Britain.

During that first date at London’s Dean Street Townhouse the couple spent three hours in conversation, Harry drinking beer and Meghan sipping martinis. Harry was said to be ‘in a trance’ and had told himself: ‘I’ve got to up my game here’ when trying to impress the LA-born actress.

The book says: ‘Meghan had enough dating experience to know a charmer when she saw one, and Harry was obviously not at all that’ – adding the couple were ‘immediately obsessed’ with each other and bonded over their joint ‘passions for wanting to make change for good’.

The biography describes in detail the couple's first date in Soho, London, which went so well that Meghan later confided in a friend: 'Do I sound crazy when I say this could have legs?'. The couple are pictured in March

The biography describes in detail the couple's first date in Soho, London, which went so well that Meghan later confided in a friend: 'Do I sound crazy when I say this could have legs?'. The couple are pictured in March

The biography describes in detail the couple’s first date in Soho, London, which went so well that Meghan later confided in a friend: ‘Do I sound crazy when I say this could have legs?’. The couple are pictured in March

According to one friend quoted in the book, Harry and Meghan ‘chatted a lot’ but the evening, like the night before, ended chastely, with Harry returning to Kensington Palace despite their ‘electric chemistry’.

Describing how they flirted throughout, the authors said: ‘A touch of an arm here, direct eye contact there.’

The pair had now met just twice but Harry already knew ‘they would be together at that point’, a friend said, adding of Meghan: ‘She was ticking every box fast.’ Meghan, who was in London visiting, documented much of her trip on social media.

The night out was so successful the second date the following night at the same venue where they are said to have sneaked in via a side door, hidden from view by a delivery truck bringing in produce and fresh fish from Billingsgate Market.

Prince Harry was the first to say 'I love you' in his relationship with Meghan Markle, with friends revealing the couple were 'immediately obsessed' with each other. They are pictured in March this year

Prince Harry was the first to say 'I love you' in his relationship with Meghan Markle, with friends revealing the couple were 'immediately obsessed' with each other. They are pictured in March this year

Prince Harry was the first to say ‘I love you’ in his relationship with Meghan Markle, with friends revealing the couple were ‘immediately obsessed’ with each other. They are pictured in March this year

One trusted waiter was asked to serve them the entire evening to keep it private.

According to one friend quoted in the book, Harry and Meghan ‘chatted a lot’ but the evening, like the night before, ended chastely, with Harry returning to Kensington Palace despite their ‘electric chemistry’.

Describing how they flirted throughout, the authors said: ‘A touch of an arm here, direct eye contact there.’

The pair had now met just twice but Harry already knew ‘they would be together at that point’, a friend said, adding of Meghan: ‘She was ticking every box fast.’ Meghan, who was in London visiting, documented much of her trip on social media.

Harry was the first to say ‘I love you’   

Prince Harry was the first to say ‘I love you’ in his relationship with Meghan Markle, with friends revealing the couple were ‘immediately obsessed’ with each other.

Meghan’s necklace controversy

Meghan Markle was left ‘frustrated and emotional’ after a palace aide ‘scolded’ her for wearing a necklace with the initials H and M before she and Prince Harry were engaged, according to Finding Freedom. 

The former Suits star, 38, was spotted wearing the personalised £184 14 karat gold chain by Los Angeles-based designer Maya Brenner – believed to have been a gift from the prince – while out shopping in Toronto in December 2016.

The bold move was seen as an early indication of the seriousness of their relationship – a month after the news of their love affair emerged. The Duke and Duchess of Sussex later announced their engagement in November 2017. 

The former Suits star, 38, was spotted wearing the personalised chain - believed to have been a gift from the prince - while out shopping in Toronto

The former Suits star, 38, was spotted wearing the personalised chain - believed to have been a gift from the prince - while out shopping in Toronto

The former Suits star, 38, was spotted wearing the personalised chain – believed to have been a gift from the prince – while out shopping in Toronto

According to a source close to the couple, following the publication of the images Meghan received a dressing down from a palace aide.

‘She was advised that wearing such a necklace only served to encourage the photographers to keep pursuing such images — and new headlines,’ they said.

Prince Harry was REFUSED Queen’s offer of a trial period’ that would have allowed him and Meghan Markle to return to the fold 12 months after Megxit 

Prince Harry was so keen on quitting the royal family that he initially refused the offer of a trial period which could have seen him and Meghan return to the UK after Megxit, 

The review was insisted upon by courtiers and other royals, with the Queen keen to let Harry know he could return to the fold if he changed his mind. 

However, the Duke of Sussex was keen to make a ‘clean break’ and had to be persuaded to agree to the trial period.  A source said: ‘He was adamantly opposed to the review process.’

 Harry is thought to have been against the idea because it came from ‘the institution’ and he feared that a review would lessen the impact of their departure, allowing the media to write they could return.

Prince Harry was so keen on quitting the royal family that he initially refused the offer of a trial period which could have seen him and Meghan return to the UK after Megxit. Meghan is pictured with the Queen in June 2018

Prince Harry was so keen on quitting the royal family that he initially refused the offer of a trial period which could have seen him and Meghan return to the UK after Megxit. Meghan is pictured with the Queen in June 2018

Prince Harry was so keen on quitting the royal family that he initially refused the offer of a trial period which could have seen him and Meghan return to the UK after Megxit. Meghan is pictured with the Queen in June 2018

Harry believed the ‘old guard’ at Buckingham Palace disliked Meghan and wanted to make her life difficult. 

That belief is thought to have fuelled his desire to not include a review option in Megxit.   

Harry ‘ditched an old friend for criticising Meghan’ 

The Duke of Sussex was so ‘incandescent’ with rage at the racist abuse Meghan Markle received after their relationship went public that he ditched an old friend for gossiping about her.

Harry was shocked at the reception given to his new girlfriend by his social circle and the wider public, according to Finding Freedom.

He was especially concerned about ‘the ugliness of racism…both unconscious and intentional’.

Charles didn’t know about Harry’s press statement 

Before they were engaged, Harry gave a bombshell statement from Kensington Palace condemning the press while confirming Harry’s new girlfriend.

But it’s release coincided with Prince Charles’ tour in the Middle East, the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall having arrived in Bahrain to meet the country’s King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa.

The palace decided to go ahead with the statement, much of it drafted by Harry himself.

Before they were engaged, Harry gave a bombshell statement from Kensington Palace condemning the press while confirming Harry's new girlfriend, upsetting Charles who didn't know about the statement until 20 minutes before. Pictured: Prince Harry and Prince William walk behind Charles, and the Queen at Westminster Abbey. Also pictured: Duchesses of Cornwall (front), Cambridge (middle) and Sussex (back)

Before they were engaged, Harry gave a bombshell statement from Kensington Palace condemning the press while confirming Harry's new girlfriend, upsetting Charles who didn't know about the statement until 20 minutes before. Pictured: Prince Harry and Prince William walk behind Charles, and the Queen at Westminster Abbey. Also pictured: Duchesses of Cornwall (front), Cambridge (middle) and Sussex (back)

Before they were engaged, Harry gave a bombshell statement from Kensington Palace condemning the press while confirming Harry’s new girlfriend, upsetting Charles who didn’t know about the statement until 20 minutes before. Pictured: Prince Harry and Prince William walk behind Charles, and the Queen at Westminster Abbey. Also pictured: Duchesses of Cornwall (front), Cambridge (middle) and Sussex (back)

His father only learnt of the statement 20 minutes before it was released and, unsurprisingly, it soon dominated the news cycle.

Prince Charles and his team were left crushed and disappointed, though Charles also understood the intervention was a necessary one.

However, the episode only served to prove that Harry felt the need to prioritise the woman he loved over duty to the royal family. 

Harry had a  secret Instagram account

Harry used the username SpikeyMau5, inspired by Canadian DJ Deadmau5, before freezing the account after his relationship with the former Suits star emerged in October 2016.

The private Instagram profile had a mouse-shaped helmet for a picture – but piqued attention from Meghan’s legions of fans when she became just one of two people following it four years ago just after the couple had a blind date at Dean Street Townhouse in Soho.

 The ‘Spikey’ element of its name came from the code word used by Scotland Yard officers guarding the Duke of Sussex 24/7.

Harry and Meghan’s £1500 a night camping trip 

Six weeks after their first date, Harry took Meghan to Botswana where the pair stayed in £1,500-a-night tents.

A friend is quoted as saying: ‘She came back smiling and just completely spellbound.’ Meghan’s phone was also said to be full of photos, including selfies of her and Harry.

‘I’ve never felt that safe that close to someone in such a short amount of time,’ she reportedly told a friend.

They continued their relationship in secret with Harry flying out to Canada to spend time with her.

But the authors said that ever since the couple’s trip to Africa, ‘their romance had been on a fast track’.

‘Technically the getaway was just their third date but by then, they were each already dancing around the idea that this just may be a for ever thing,’ a friend said. 

The biography also claims: – 

  • Meghan used to tip off the paparazzi when working as an actress in Canada, despite her later going on to claim she didn’t understand the ‘tabloid culture’.
  • Meghan’s friends claimed she endured prejudice from the royal household, with a senior staff member overheard telling a colleague: ‘There’s just something about her I just don’t trust.’   
  • Harry felt ‘unprotected’ by his family and disparaged within palace walls for being ‘too sensitive and outspoken’.
  • Senior courtiers in other households felt that the global popularity of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex ‘needed to be reined in’,
  • A tearful Meghan told friends about their decision to quit royal duties: ‘I gave up my entire life for this family.’
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Professor teaching anti-Marxism course claims he’s ‘censored’

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Evan Osborne, an economics professor at Wright State University, says he is not being allowed to teach a course critical of Marxism to the wider general student population

Evan Osborne, an economics professor at Wright State University, says he is not being allowed to teach a course critical of Marxism to the wider general student population

Evan Osborne, an economics professor at Wright State University, says he is not being allowed to teach a course critical of Marxism to the wider general student population

An economics professor at a public university in Ohio claims he is being censored because the administration won’t let him teach a class critical of Marxism to the general student population.

Evan Osborne, a professor at Wright State University, teaches a course entitled Marxism: A History of Theory and Practice, at the Dayton, Ohio, campus.

The course is described in its syllabus as ‘both an introduction to Marxist economic thought and the history of political power exercised in the name of that thought.’

The syllabus assigns students to read material on how communism was applied in Russia and China. It also critiques Westerners who viewed communism sympathetically.

But the course is only available this fall to honors students. Osborne has taught the class once before – in 2014 – but that was also exclusive to honors students.

Osborne says he has been denied a request to make the course available to the wider student population even though he says there are multiple classes taught by professors who praise Marx.

According to The College Fix, Osborne asked to teach his course about Marxism for the spring, summer, and fall 2020 semesters, but was rebuffed by Zdravka Todorova, the chair of the economics department.

Todorova told Osborne that the department was already offering a course about radical economics that term and there wasn’t room for any other class, The Fix reported.

DailyMail.com has reached out to Todorova for comment.

Osborne told The Fix that he was being denied the opportunity teach his class to more students because ‘we have an angry, radical-left cohort in the department, they praise Marxism in the classroom, they will not let me teach critically about it, and numerous people in the university have refused to do anything about it.’

‘That my department is full of extremists who probably don’t belong in a business-college economics department, to be sure, is a manifestation of academic freedom,’ Osborne told The College Fix.

‘And I do not want to change how economics is taught at WSU, broadly speaking. I just want my academic freedom to offer a different view to also be respected.’

Both Wright State University and Osborne have been contacted by DailyMail.com for comment.

Osborne said that it is easier for Wright State students to take courses that look critically at capitalism, including one class called Socialist and Radical Economics.

That course, which Osborne said is taught every spring, aims to give students the opportunity to ‘learn the rich history of critical analyses of the dominant form of capitalism (i.e., historical evolution of capitalist ownerships, capitalist labor process, and its socioeconomic outcomes) and to engage in a critical debate on the prospect of socioeconomic reform,’ according to its syllabus.

Wright State also requires students majoring in economics to take an ‘institutional economics’ course.

‘This class is consistently skeptical of free markets and “capitalism”,’ Osborne told The Fix.

‘Given the way Marx is favorably assessed in our curriculum, and Marxism’s actual historical record, I really thought our students deserved an alternate perspective.’

Osborne claims that the economics department on the Dayton, Ohio, campus (above) has 'censored' him by limiting his course about Marxism to honors students only

Osborne claims that the economics department on the Dayton, Ohio, campus (above) has 'censored' him by limiting his course about Marxism to honors students only

Osborne claims that the economics department on the Dayton, Ohio, campus (above) has ‘censored’ him by limiting his course about Marxism to honors students only

According to Osborne’s CV, he earned a Ph.D. and an M.A. in economics from the University of California-Los Angeles.

He also studied Mandarin at the National Taiwan University.

Osborne told The Fix that his peers complained anonymously to the department chair, accusing him of ‘teaching Marxism incorrectly.’

He said his colleagues, whom he called ‘dissenters/censors,’ demanded that he include in his syllabus material that provided an alternate view of Marxism even though Osborne said ‘these points of view are already included in our curriculum in other courses.’

‘In my quarter-century at Wright State this kind of anonymous, secret criticism has not happened to anyone besides me,’ he told The Fix.

Osborne said that during his tenure at Wright State, elective courses proposed by other faculty members have always been approved without fuss – except for his Marxism class.

‘Institutions of higher learning are now almost all in crisis,’ according to Osborne.

‘The indulgence of unapologetic leftist censorship, at Wright State as elsewhere, is now impossible to justify.

‘If faculty want to preach that Marxism is a triumph of human thought, so be it.

‘If other faculty want to argue that actually it was a disaster, and a crime against humanity, this view should no longer be fanatically censored.’ 

Who is Karl Marx and what is his ‘The Communist Manifesto’?

Karl Marx's ideas of society, economics and politics formed the theoretical base for modern international communism

Karl Marx's ideas of society, economics and politics formed the theoretical base for modern international communism

Karl Marx’s ideas of society, economics and politics formed the theoretical base for modern international communism

Described as one of the most influential figures in human history, Karl Marx is a German revolutionary, sociologist, historian, and economist in the 19th century.

Perhaps best known for his critique on capitalism, Marx’s radical ideas of society, economics and politics have been collectively understood as Marxism.

His ideas formed the theoretical base for modern international communism ideology, which aims for shared ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes.

Born in 1818, Marx studied law in Bonn and Berlin and received a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Jena.

In 1843, after a brief editor role at a liberal newspaper in Cologne, Marx and his wife Jenny von Westphalen moved to Paris, a hotbed of radical thought.  

In 1848, Marx published ‘Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei’, commonly known as ‘The Communist Manifesto’ with fellow German thinker Friedrich Engels.

It became the most celebrated pamphlet in the socialist movement, according to Encyclopaedia Britannica.

The manifesto introduced Marx and Engels’ concept of socialism as a natural result of the conflicts inherent in the capitalist system.

It states that the whole history of mankind has been a history of class struggles, contests between exploiting and exploited, ruling and oppressed classes.

Marx asserted that these would ultimately disappear with the victory of the proletarians – the industrial working class.

It closed with the words: ‘The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!’

Marx actively pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation.

Revolution subsequently erupted in France, Italy and Austria in the first months of 1848.

In June 1849, Marx moved to London and would remain based in the city for the rest of his life.

Marx also was the author of the movement’s most important book, ‘Das Kapital’, where in the first volume, Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production. 

Although Marx did not live to publish the second and third parts, they were completed and published by Engels.

Marx died on March 14, 1883 and was buried at Highgate Cemetery in London.

In China and the Soviet Union, Marxism is enshrined as a ‘guiding ideology’ in the constitutions of both the party and the state.

The founding and ruling political party of modern China – the Communist Party – requires members to adopt the reading of Marxist works and the understanding of Marxist theories as a ‘way of life’ and a ‘spiritual pursuit’.

In many Chinese universities, an ‘introduction to the basic principles of Marxism’ is a mandatory course all students must pass to graduate.  

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Victoria turns on ‘diabolical’ Dan Andrews after he refused to answer questions on hotel quarantine

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victoria turns on diabolical dan andrews after he refused to answer questions on hotel quarantine

Daniel Andrews has been slammed from all angles over his handling of the bungled hotel quarantine program that sparked Victoria’s coronavirus disaster – and for which no one has been held accountable. 

Business leaders, health experts and the premier’s political opponents are among the latest take aim at his ‘diabolical’ leadership in a time of crisis.

His state’s horror second wave of cases – most, if not all of which can be traced to quarantine hotels – has derailed Australia’s economic recovery and plunged more than six million people back into lockdown.  

The renewed criticism of Mr Andrews came after a press conference on Thursday when he promised to ‘own’ the errors of the quarantine fiasco – but couldn’t answer crucial questions about it.   

A grilling from journalists took a heavy toll on Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews on Thursday

A grilling from journalists took a heavy toll on Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews on Thursday

A grilling from journalists took a heavy toll on Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews on Thursday

Mas Azemi of Mas Barber Shop was forced to shut up shop for six weeks on Wednesday afternoon in response to Victoria's ongoing COVID-19 outbreak

Mas Azemi of Mas Barber Shop was forced to shut up shop for six weeks on Wednesday afternoon in response to Victoria's ongoing COVID-19 outbreak

Mas Azemi of Mas Barber Shop was forced to shut up shop for six weeks on Wednesday afternoon in response to Victoria’s ongoing COVID-19 outbreak

State opposition leader Michael O’Brien said the premier was overseeing the ‘biggest public policy failure in Australian history’.

‘Can you name me any other public policy failure that has led to dozens and dozens of deaths, 250,000 Victorians being thrown out of work, the closure of tens and thousand of businesses, five million Victorians subject to a curfew and every Victorian forced to wear a mask,’ Mr O’Brien told Sky News on Thursday night.

‘He needs to answer questions. We shouldn’t have to spend $3million on an [hotel quarantine] inquiry for the premier to tell Victorians the truth. 

‘His own chief adviser says everything that is happening now goes back to hotel quarantine.

‘That’s why he is so keen to avoid scrutiny. He shut down parliament. You can have Dan Murphy’s as an essential service, but you can’t have democracy as an essential service?’

State opposition leader Michael O'Brien (pictured) said Daniel Andrews was at the heart of the 'biggest public policy failure in Australian history'

State opposition leader Michael O'Brien (pictured) said Daniel Andrews was at the heart of the 'biggest public policy failure in Australian history'

State opposition leader Michael O’Brien (pictured) said Daniel Andrews was at the heart of the ‘biggest public policy failure in Australian history’

Melbourne's Bourke Street Mall was deserted on Thursday after retailers were forced to close

Melbourne's Bourke Street Mall was deserted on Thursday after retailers were forced to close

Melbourne’s Bourke Street Mall was deserted on Thursday after retailers were forced to close

Premier Andrews was quick to sack two ministers and frontbencher Adem Somyrek after the party’s branch stacking revelations came to light in June.

But no public health official has been stood down over the hotel quarantine saga, with Mr Andrews admitting on Thursday he wouldn’t know who to sack. 

He said he had no idea which government departments or ministers were responsible for the botched operation. 

‘The lines of authority and accountability and exactly what has gone on here, it is not clear,’ he said.

‘I’ll be accountable for mistakes that were made, but I don’t have the answers. That’s why I’ve set up a proper inquiry to get those answers. We’re all entitled to them.’   

The construction industry has been hard hit with building sites restricted to 25 per cent capacity. Pictured are workers building  a new park in Melbourne's CBD on Thursday

The construction industry has been hard hit with building sites restricted to 25 per cent capacity. Pictured are workers building  a new park in Melbourne's CBD on Thursday

The construction industry has been hard hit with building sites restricted to 25 per cent capacity. Pictured are workers building  a new park in Melbourne’s CBD on Thursday

A Melburnian walks past a closed up shop on Wednesday as the city goes into stage four lockdown

A Melburnian walks past a closed up shop on Wednesday as the city goes into stage four lockdown

A Melburnian walks past a closed up shop on Wednesday as the city goes into stage four lockdown

Big business has taken aim at Premier Andrews as the economical implications of the stage four lockdown start to take effect.

Salta Properties billionaire owner Sam Tarascio slammed Premier Andrews’ leadership as diabolical.

‘The government is saying this is a health crisis and we can’t consider everything else,’ he told The Australian.

‘But that is like sticking your head in the sand. We can be healthy but we are going to stuff the whole state’s economy in the meantime.’

Salta is yet lay off any staff or slash wages during the pandemic so far.

‘But there may not be enough work for everyone from here — we may have to ask them to take some holidays and hope we work our way out of it,’ Mr Tarascio said.

Property developer Tim Gurner warned the restrictions placed on the construction industry down to 25 per cent capacity will see the sector go backwards.

He’s appalled the government didn’t consult builders and unions beforehand. 

‘It is going to be catastrophic for the Victorian economy. It is policy on the run,’ Mr Gurner said. 

Federal government officials are also angry they were forced to intervene after Victoria’s health authorities to share critical data with other states.

Senior health officials told the Herald Sun Victorian authorities have been ‘almost obstructive’ in theirs dealing with the Australian Health Protection Principal Commitee.

They also claimed the state’s chief health officer Brett Sutton was tight-lipped about the delays in contact tracing and notifying positive cases, sparking concern from Prime Minister Scott Morrison.

The healthcare sector has called for immediate government intervention to address the rampant spread of coronavirus in healthcare settings.

As of Thursday, 1388 healthcare workers in Victoria have contracted the virus.

Of the 810 active cases, 48 doctors, 346 nurses and 416 other healthcare workers are battling the virus.

Two-thirds are aged in their 20s and 30s. 

‘The current infection rate is unacceptable,’ Australian Institute of Health and Safety chairwoman Naomi Kemp said on Thursday.

‘But more tragically, it is preventable.’

Another 1435 of Victoria’s 7449 total active cases are linked to aged care.

Property developers have slammed the Victorian government's decision to restrict work on construction sites to 25 per cent of normal capacity. Pictured is a Melbourne working on his own on Thursday

Property developers have slammed the Victorian government's decision to restrict work on construction sites to 25 per cent of normal capacity. Pictured is a Melbourne working on his own on Thursday

Property developers have slammed the Victorian government’s decision to restrict work on construction sites to 25 per cent of normal capacity. Pictured is a Melbourne working on his own on Thursday 

The ‘failure’ to instil adequate health and safety standards contributed to the state’s second wave infiltrating hospitals and aged care centres, Ms Kemp said.

The national safety body claims many building site workers have better personal protective equipment to combat the virus than doctors and nurses.

National PPE guidance for use in hospitals does not require staff to wear P2 or N95 masks while treating confirmed or potential COVID-19 patients.

Surgical masks, more commonly used in hospitals, do not offer the same level of protection against the airborne virus.

The AIHS wants federal and state governments to step in and mandate the use of P2 and N95 respirators in these circumstances among a bevy of best-practice virus upgrades.

‘The Victorian experience will simply be repeated in other states unless we act urgently to introduce better protocols across Australia,’ Ms Kemp said.

‘We’re not saying that individual hospitals and aged care centres aren’t trying.

‘But many are only implementing the minimum health and safety standards, and those requirements are dangerously inadequate for frontline workers.’

The AIHS echoed calls from Victorian anaesthetists last week to provide staff-wide PPE ‘fit testing’.

Fit testing involves checking whether airborne particles can penetrate an N95 mask and other safety gear.

The Australian Society of Anaesthetists said it had made ‘numerous approaches’ to federal and state health authorities to request mandatory fit testing in all hospitals.

Australian Defense Force (ADF) personnel and Protective service officers are seen on patrol

Australian Defense Force (ADF) personnel and Protective service officers are seen on patrol

Australian Defense Force (ADF) personnel and Protective service officers are seen on patrol

Police check the permit papers of a worker on day 1 of the full stage 4 lockdown restrictions

Police check the permit papers of a worker on day 1 of the full stage 4 lockdown restrictions

Police check the permit papers of a worker on day 1 of the full stage 4 lockdown restrictions 

Earlier on Thursday, Mr Andrews came under fire for his handling of the coronavirus pandemic.

Justice Jennifer Coate, who is leading the inquiry into the hotel quarantine program, said on Thursday the premier and his ministers were free to answer questions about the probe.

But Mr Andrews still remained tight-lipped, telling reporters he doesn’t have all the answers yet.

The premier gave a fiery response at the suggestion he was hiding behind the inquiry when asked about the chain of command in the hotel quarantine program. 

‘I’m not going to conduct a judicial inquiry from this podium. I’m not having two inquires at once. We are having a proper inquiry.

‘Judge Coate will take that inquiry where ever she wants to take it and she will report whatever she believes was appropriate.’

He said he took responsibility for mistakes that had been made.

‘I am accountable because of the job I have. I’m accountable for any mistakes, and all mistakes, that are made. I have never shirked that responsibility. 

‘I’ve never moved so much as an inch away from that responsibility. That is the role that I have. I will own those errors. I will be accountable for those errors. So, please don’t be in any doubt about that.’

 The inquiry was due to start this week but it has been pushed back to August 17 when it will be held via an online hearing due to the Melbourne lockdown.

People packed  Queen Victoria Market on day one of the full stage 4 lockdown

People packed  Queen Victoria Market on day one of the full stage 4 lockdown

People packed  Queen Victoria Market on day one of the full stage 4 lockdown

Police and ADF are seen patrolling Flagstaff Gardens on day one of the full stage four lockdown restrictions in Melbourne's CBD

Police and ADF are seen patrolling Flagstaff Gardens on day one of the full stage four lockdown restrictions in Melbourne's CBD

Police and ADF are seen patrolling Flagstaff Gardens on day one of the full stage four lockdown restrictions in Melbourne’s CBD

 Earlier during briefing Mr Andrews revealed the details on the reduction in capacity for the state’s meat processing facilities as distribution centres have been forced to reduce their workforce to two-thirds of normal production during the six-week lockdown.

Red meat expected to go down to 66 per cent of normal operations and poultry to 80 per cent. 

Retail stores across the city will largely be closed to customers from Thursday, while construction and manufacturing work will also been scaled back in a bid to slow the spread of the virus.

Employees allowed to work on-site now have to show a permit or official work ID if they are by stopped police to prove they can leave their homes, or face fines of up to $99,123 for businesses and up to $19,826 for individuals. 

Melbourne has been in stage-four lockdown since Sunday night. Pictured is a heavy police presence in Melbourne on Wednesday

Melbourne has been in stage-four lockdown since Sunday night. Pictured is a heavy police presence in Melbourne on Wednesday

Melbourne has been in stage-four lockdown since Sunday night. Pictured is a heavy police presence in Melbourne on Wednesday

Permitted workers and those working from home who cannot supervise their kids must fill out separate forms to send them to child care, kindergarten or primary school.

The rules kicked in a day after Victoria recorded its deadliest day of the COVID-19 pandemic on Wednesday with 15 fatalities, including that of a man in his 30s, and 725 new cases.

Melbourne has been in stage-four lockdown since Sunday with schools shut, weddings banned, and citizens restricted to within a 5km radius of their homes. 

Between 8pm and 5am, residents are only allowed to leave their house for work and essential health, care or safety reasons. 

There are now 7,227 active cases in Victoria, 2,280 of which have no known source. 

What is closed in Melbourne Stage 4

Furniture wholesalers

Personal care including hairdressers

Car washes

Pubs, taverns, bars, brothels and prostitution services, clubs, nightclubs

Food courts, restaurants, cafes, etc 

Architectural, engineering and technical services

Travel and tour agencies 

Non-emergency call centre operations

Non-urgent elective surgery

Museums, parks and gardens, ski resorts

Gambling

Places of worship except what is required to stream services or provide soup kitchens and food banks 

Manufacturing of non-metallic mineral and fabricated metal products, furniture, wood, textile, leather fur, dressing knitted, clothing and footwear, domestic appliances

All office-based and professional businesses, except those delivering critical services, must work from home

OPERATING BUT LIMITED

Building sites of more than three storeys – 25 per cent of workforce

Less than three storeys- five workers on site at a time only

Meat processing – workers cut by a third

Shopping centres for access to permitted retail only

Public transport, ride share and taxis only to support access to permitted services for permitted workers

Thoroughbred, harness and greyhound racing with minimum number of essential participants to operate safely 

FULL LIST  

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What is open in Melbourne Stage 4

Supermarkets, bottle shops, petrol stations, pharmacies, post offices, banks

Retailers working onsite to fulfill online orders 

Hardware, building an garden supplies for trade

Specialist stationery for business use 

Motor vehicle parts for emergency repairs, mechanics

Locksmiths, laundry and dry cleaners, maternity supplies

Disability and health services and equipment, mobility devices 

Farms and commercial fishing

Vets, pounds and animal shelters

Supermarkets will stay open

Supermarkets will stay open

Supermarkets will stay open

Construction of critical infrastructure and services to support those projects

Critical repairs to homes where required for emergency or safety

Cafes and restaurants for takeaway

Media 

Critical service call centres

Medicare

Law enforcement and courts for urgent matters

Prisons, facilities for parolees, adult parole board, youth justice facilities

Emergency services

Essential maintenance and manufacturing

FULL LIST 

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George Floyd death: Cop’s lawyer says he never touched victim

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george floyd death cops lawyer says he never touched victim

The lawyer for one of the four former Minneapolis police officers charged over George Floyd‘s death has claimed his client ‘only handled crowd control’ and had offered cops a hobble restraint to use during the fatal arrest.  

Defense attorney Robert Paule filed a memo on Wednesday supporting his earlier motion to dismiss charges against fired officer Tou Thao for lack of probable cause. 

The memo said Thao had his back to what was going on as officer Derek Chauvin, who is white, pressed his knee to the neck of Floyd, a handcuffed black man. 

Chauvin had pinned Floyd down with his leg for more than eight minutes on May 25 even after he repeatedly pleaded for air.

The defense attorney for former Minneapolis cop Tou Thao (pictured right during a court hearing last month) is seeking to dismiss the charges against his client due to 'lack of probable cause'

The defense attorney for former Minneapolis cop Tou Thao (pictured right during a court hearing last month) is seeking to dismiss the charges against his client due to 'lack of probable cause'

The defense attorney for former Minneapolis cop Tou Thao (pictured right during a court hearing last month) is seeking to dismiss the charges against his client due to ‘lack of probable cause’

Thao (right) was fired alongside three of his colleagues, Derek Chauvin (far left) J. Alexander Kueng (second from left) and Thomas Lane (second from right) after footage of Floyd's fatal arrest went viral in May

Thao (right) was fired alongside three of his colleagues, Derek Chauvin (far left) J. Alexander Kueng (second from left) and Thomas Lane (second from right) after footage of Floyd's fatal arrest went viral in May

Thao (right) was fired alongside three of his colleagues, Derek Chauvin (far left) J. Alexander Kueng (second from left) and Thomas Lane (second from right) after footage of Floyd’s fatal arrest went viral in May

Thao was seen in footage of the fatal confrontation with his back to Floyd as he was pinned to the ground by Chauvin

Thao was seen in footage of the fatal confrontation with his back to Floyd as he was pinned to the ground by Chauvin

Thao's attorney has claimed he only handled 'crowd control' of the incident

Thao's attorney has claimed he only handled 'crowd control' of the incident

Thao was seen in footage of the fatal confrontation with his back to Floyd as he was pinned to the ground by Chauvin. Thao’s attorney has claimed he only handled ‘crowd control’ of the incident

According to the memo, Thao had offered a hobble restraint to the other three officers, but they refused it. 

A hobble restraint is sometimes used to by police to restrain suspects by their wrists and ankles. The device limits the person’s movement while keeping them in a seated position. 

Thao then ‘immediately turned his attention to crowd control’ and kept his back to Floyd and the other officers for the majority of the remainder of the arrest, the memo said.

‘When Officer Thao turned his back to Mr Floyd and the three other officers for the last time, Mr Floyd was still alive and breathing,’ the memo said. 

‘Officer Thao did nothing to aid in the commission of a crime.’

Thao never placed his hands on Floyd, according to the memo, and asked about the status of an ambulance, radioing police dispatch to hurry up the response.

Floyd, 46, died on May 25 after officer Derek Chauvin (pictured) pressed his knee against his neck for more than eight minutes

Floyd, 46, died on May 25 after officer Derek Chauvin (pictured) pressed his knee against his neck for more than eight minutes

George Floyd

George Floyd

Floyd, 46, died on May 25 after officer Derek Chauvin (left) pressed his knee against his neck for more than eight minutes

Thao claims he offered officers a hobble restraint (pictured in a stock image) for Floyd, but they refused

Thao claims he offered officers a hobble restraint (pictured in a stock image) for Floyd, but they refused

Thao claims he offered officers a hobble restraint (pictured in a stock image) for Floyd, but they refused

The lawyer also argues Chauvin was using a non-deadly, Minneapolis Police Department-approved neck restraint, and that Thao and the other three officers ‘had been repeatedly trained to use neck restraints.’ 

Viral footage of the deadly police confrontation showed Thao standing on the street as Floyd was pinned to the ground behind him, struggling to breathe.

Thao was seen facing a group of bystanders who were recording the incident as they urged officers to release Floyd. 

The disturbing footage captured Floyd’s final moments, during which he gasped for air and complained to cops that he couldn’t breathe before eventually losing consciousness.

He was later taken away in an ambulance and was pronounced dead shortly after on May 25. 

Thao was fired the next day along with fellow officers Derek Chauvin, J. Alexander Kueng, and Thomas Lane following widespread backlash over the video. 

He was charged with aiding and abetting second-degree murder and aiding and abetting second-degree manslaughter.  

Floyd's death triggered a nationwide protests against police brutality and the senseless killings of black Americans

Floyd's death triggered a nationwide protests against police brutality and the senseless killings of black Americans

Floyd’s death triggered a nationwide protests against police brutality and the senseless killings of black Americans

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