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Olympian Allyson Felix Breaks Usain Bolt’s Record—10 Months After Emergency C-Section

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Ohio man, 23, needed to have his hand REATTACHED after a lawnmower accident 

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ohio man 23 needed to have his hand reattached after a lawnmower accident

Luke Brittain reached for the cell phone in his pocket. He wasn’t going to be able to get his lawnmower out of the six-foot ditch  that he and the heavy machine had landed in alone. 

But he couldn’t seem to get his hand into his pocket. Brittain looked down. The pocket was intact, but his dominant left hand was completely gone.  

The 23-year-old groundskeeper’s hand had been severed by the still-turning blades of his lawnmower. 

Brittain was on the job, trimming the yard of a client in his hometown of North Canton, Ohio in the summer of 2019 when the machine slipped on a patch of mud, the lawnmower flipped over into a ditch and Brittain landed on top of it.

Because he had put his hands up to protect his face, his left hand was cut clean off. Doctors were unsure it could be salvaged. 

After a painstakingly long 14-hour procedure, surgeons at the Cleveland Clinic were able to successfully reattach the appendage. 

With countless of hours of physical therapy, Brittain is slowly recovering strength in his left hand and said he is thankful that he has two working hands in time to hold his recently born infant daughter 

SCROLL DOWN FOR VIDEO 

Luke Brittain, 23 (pictured), from North Canton, Ohio, had to have his hand reattached after it was severed during a lawnmower accident in April 2019

Luke Brittain, 23 (pictured), from North Canton, Ohio, had to have his hand reattached after it was severed during a lawnmower accident in April 2019

Luke Brittain, 23 (pictured), from North Canton, Ohio, had to have his hand reattached after it was severed during a lawnmower accident in April 2019

Brittain was working as a groundskeeper at Kent State University when his lawnmower slipped on a patch of mud and flipped over and landed on top of it. Pictured: Brittain in bed after surgery

Brittain was working as a groundskeeper at Kent State University when his lawnmower slipped on a patch of mud and flipped over and landed on top of it. Pictured: Brittain in bed after surgery

Brittain was working as a groundskeeper at Kent State University when his lawnmower slipped on a patch of mud and flipped over and landed on top of it. Pictured: Brittain in bed after surgery

Prior to the accident, Brittain was an avid baseball player, starting with playing T-ball at age three.

He played summer games in middle school and high school and eventually in college, mostly pitching but occasionally playing first base and outfield. 

‘All my childhood life was consumed by baseball,’ he told DailyMail.com.

On April 29, 2019, Brittain was working at Kent State, his alma mater, and got on a lawn mower that he didn’t normally use.

It had been raining the night before and, in the middle of trimming the grass, the machine slipped on a muddy hillside and clipped the concrete of a drain pipe.

The mower went over a ledge and fell six feet into a ditch, upside down. Brittain, seeing he was about to land on top of the still-spinning blades, put his dominant left hand up instinctively to protect his face.

‘I thought I was okay. I didn’t even really realize at first that I was hurt. It was more the fall that hurt than anything,’ he said.

‘I was going to go reach for my phone because the next thing I was thinking was: “Dang, I gotta call my boss and we have to drag this thing out of this ditch”…and that’s when I realized my hand wasn’t going into my pocket.’ 

Brittain’s left hand had been severed by the mower.

He used part of his jacket, which had also been torn to shred by his blades, as a tourniquet and tied it around his arm to stop the bleeding.

Because he had put his left hand up to protect his face from the still spinning blades, it was cut off. Pictured: X-ray of Brittain's left hand

Because he had put his left hand up to protect his face from the still spinning blades, it was cut off. Pictured: X-ray of Brittain's left hand

Because he had put his left hand up to protect his face from the still spinning blades, it was cut off. Pictured: X-ray of Brittain’s left hand 

He was taken to Cleveland Clinic Akron General, where doctors successfully reattached his hand during a 14-hour surgery. Pictured: Brittain's hand after the surgery

He was taken to Cleveland Clinic Akron General, where doctors successfully reattached his hand during a 14-hour surgery. Pictured: Brittain's hand after the surgery

He was taken to Cleveland Clinic Akron General, where doctors successfully reattached his hand during a 14-hour surgery. Pictured: Brittain’s hand after the surgery

Before the accident, Brittain was a baseball player who played throughout elementary school, middle school, high school and college. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a kid

Before the accident, Brittain was a baseball player who played throughout elementary school, middle school, high school and college. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a kid

Today, he says he's able to throw a baseball again. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a teenager with the Cincinnati Eagles

Today, he says he's able to throw a baseball again. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a teenager with the Cincinnati Eagles

Before the accident, Brittain was a baseball player who played throughout elementary school, middle school, high school and college. Today, he says he’s able to throw a baseball again. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a kid, left, and as a teenager with the Cincinnati Eagles, right

‘I called my boss and told him what happened and first he thought I was kidding,’  Brittain said.

‘And I explained to him like: “No, I cut my hand off. You need to get over here as fast as possible and I’m gonna hang up so I can call 911 and wait for them here.”‘

An ambulance first took him to Aultman Hospital in Canton but, because it is not a trauma center, Brittain needed to be transferred.

The closest orthopedic surgeon was at Cleveland Clinic Akron General and, within an hour of arrival, he was in surgery. 

‘I didn’t really have a lot of hope. It was either I’m gonna wake up with my hand reattached or I’m gonna wake up with no hand,’ Brittain said. 

However, Dr William Lanzinger, an orthopedic surgeon hand specialist at Cleveland Clinic, felt differently. 

‘Certainly, we couldn’t guarantee that his hand could be saved,’ he said.

‘But I wanted to assure him that we’d do everything we can. That’s what I wanted him to remember – to at least have some peace before going under anesthesia.’ 

Over the course of 14 hours, Lanzinger and his team succeeded in reattaching Brittain’s hand.

Next, was more than 20 grueling weeks of therapy from putting his hand under to get blood flow back to it and grip tests.

After four more surgeries and several weeks of therapy, Brittain says he has almost regained complete strength in his hand. Pictured: Luke during a follow-up with Dr Lanzinger

After four more surgeries and several weeks of therapy, Brittain says he has almost regained complete strength in his hand. Pictured: Luke during a follow-up with Dr Lanzinger

After four more surgeries and several weeks of therapy, Brittain says he has almost regained complete strength in his hand. Pictured: Luke during a follow-up with Dr Lanzinger

Brittain recently welcomed a daughter with his fiancée, Isabella (pictured)

Brittain recently welcomed a daughter with his fiancée, Isabella (pictured)

He said he hopes his story inspires others going through a difficult journey to not give up hope. Pictured: Brittain during a follow-up visit

He said he hopes his story inspires others going through a difficult journey to not give up hope. Pictured: Brittain during a follow-up visit

Brittain recently welcomed a daughter with his fiancée, Isabella. He said he hopes his story inspires others going through a difficult journey to not give up hope. Pictured: Brittain with Isabella, left, and during a follow-up visit, right

When he started therapy, Brittain wasn’t even able to hold a pencil in his hand, but eventually worked his way up to stress ball and even a baseball.

He also had to undergo four more surgeries to get more mobility in his knuckles, with the last operation performed to correct the positioning of his pinkie finger.   

‘At first, I couldn’t shower on my own, I couldn’t button my pants, I couldn’t tie my shoes,’ Brittain said.

‘It was a lot of adapting…There’s really not a whole lot I can do now that I wasn’t able to before. I can throw a baseball again, so that’s incredible. It’s just more difficult.’   

Today, he is back at work on the grounds crew at Kent State and just welcomed a daughter, Oakleigh, with his fiancée, Isabella, last week.

‘I’ve practiced changing diapers on our little nephew so I should be able to handle that. That’s going to be the big thing,’ he said.

Brittain said that he hopes his story inspires others undergoing difficult health journeys of their own to not give up.

‘I cut my hand off so I very well could have just stopped working out or stopped trying to play baseball right there and nobody would have blamed me,’ he said.

‘That was never an option in my mind [to quit]. It was just immediately: “How can I get back to where I was?”

‘Now that I have a daughter…I can set that example for her. I had more people than just myself to do this for.’

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Ohio man, 23, needed to have his hand REATTACHED after a lawnmower accident 

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ohio man 23 needed to have his hand reattached after a lawnmower accident

Luke Brittain reached for the cell phone in his pocket. He wasn’t going to be able to get his lawnmower out of the six-foot ditch  that he and the heavy machine had landed in alone. 

But he couldn’t seem to get his hand into his pocket. Brittain looked down. The pocket was intact, but his dominant left hand was completely gone.  

The 23-year-old groundskeeper’s hand had been severed by the still-turning blades of his lawnmower. 

Brittain was on the job, trimming the yard of a client in his hometown of North Canton, Ohio in the summer of 2019 when the machine slipped on a patch of mud, the lawnmower flipped over into a ditch and Brittain landed on top of it.

Because he had put his hands up to protect his face, his left hand was cut clean off. Doctors were unsure it could be salvaged. 

After a painstakingly long 14-hour procedure, surgeons at the Cleveland Clinic were able to successfully reattach the appendage. 

With countless of hours of physical therapy, Brittain is slowly recovering strength in his left hand and said he is thankful that he has two working hands in time to hold his recently born infant daughter 

SCROLL DOWN FOR VIDEO 

Luke Brittain, 23 (pictured), from North Canton, Ohio, had to have his hand reattached after it was severed during a lawnmower accident in April 2019

Luke Brittain, 23 (pictured), from North Canton, Ohio, had to have his hand reattached after it was severed during a lawnmower accident in April 2019

Luke Brittain, 23 (pictured), from North Canton, Ohio, had to have his hand reattached after it was severed during a lawnmower accident in April 2019

Brittain was working as a groundskeeper at Kent State University when his lawnmower slipped on a patch of mud and flipped over and landed on top of it. Pictured: Brittain in bed after surgery

Brittain was working as a groundskeeper at Kent State University when his lawnmower slipped on a patch of mud and flipped over and landed on top of it. Pictured: Brittain in bed after surgery

Brittain was working as a groundskeeper at Kent State University when his lawnmower slipped on a patch of mud and flipped over and landed on top of it. Pictured: Brittain in bed after surgery

Prior to the accident, Brittain was an avid baseball player, starting with playing T-ball at age three.

He played summer games in middle school and high school and eventually in college, mostly pitching but occasionally playing first base and outfield. 

‘All my childhood life was consumed by baseball,’ he told DailyMail.com.

On April 29, 2019, Brittain was working at Kent State, his alma mater, and got on a lawn mower that he didn’t normally use.

It had been raining the night before and, in the middle of trimming the grass, the machine slipped on a muddy hillside and clipped the concrete of a drain pipe.

The mower went over a ledge and fell six feet into a ditch, upside down. Brittain, seeing he was about to land on top of the still-spinning blades, put his dominant left hand up instinctively to protect his face.

‘I thought I was okay. I didn’t even really realize at first that I was hurt. It was more the fall that hurt than anything,’ he said.

‘I was going to go reach for my phone because the next thing I was thinking was: “Dang, I gotta call my boss and we have to drag this thing out of this ditch”…and that’s when I realized my hand wasn’t going into my pocket.’ 

Brittain’s left hand had been severed by the mower.

He used part of his jacket, which had also been torn to shred by his blades, as a tourniquet and tied it around his arm to stop the bleeding.

Because he had put his left hand up to protect his face from the still spinning blades, it was cut off. Pictured: X-ray of Brittain's left hand

Because he had put his left hand up to protect his face from the still spinning blades, it was cut off. Pictured: X-ray of Brittain's left hand

Because he had put his left hand up to protect his face from the still spinning blades, it was cut off. Pictured: X-ray of Brittain’s left hand 

He was taken to Cleveland Clinic Akron General, where doctors successfully reattached his hand during a 14-hour surgery. Pictured: Brittain's hand after the surgery

He was taken to Cleveland Clinic Akron General, where doctors successfully reattached his hand during a 14-hour surgery. Pictured: Brittain's hand after the surgery

He was taken to Cleveland Clinic Akron General, where doctors successfully reattached his hand during a 14-hour surgery. Pictured: Brittain’s hand after the surgery

Before the accident, Brittain was a baseball player who played throughout elementary school, middle school, high school and college. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a kid

Before the accident, Brittain was a baseball player who played throughout elementary school, middle school, high school and college. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a kid

Today, he says he's able to throw a baseball again. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a teenager with the Cincinnati Eagles

Today, he says he's able to throw a baseball again. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a teenager with the Cincinnati Eagles

Before the accident, Brittain was a baseball player who played throughout elementary school, middle school, high school and college. Today, he says he’s able to throw a baseball again. Pictured: Luke playing baseball as a kid, left, and as a teenager with the Cincinnati Eagles, right

‘I called my boss and told him what happened and first he thought I was kidding,’  Brittain said.

‘And I explained to him like: “No, I cut my hand off. You need to get over here as fast as possible and I’m gonna hang up so I can call 911 and wait for them here.”‘

An ambulance first took him to Aultman Hospital in Canton but, because it is not a trauma center, Brittain needed to be transferred.

The closest orthopedic surgeon was at Cleveland Clinic Akron General and, within an hour of arrival, he was in surgery. 

‘I didn’t really have a lot of hope. It was either I’m gonna wake up with my hand reattached or I’m gonna wake up with no hand,’ Brittain said. 

However, Dr William Lanzinger, an orthopedic surgeon hand specialist at Cleveland Clinic, felt differently. 

‘Certainly, we couldn’t guarantee that his hand could be saved,’ he said.

‘But I wanted to assure him that we’d do everything we can. That’s what I wanted him to remember – to at least have some peace before going under anesthesia.’ 

Over the course of 14 hours, Lanzinger and his team succeeded in reattaching Brittain’s hand.

Next, was more than 20 grueling weeks of therapy from putting his hand under to get blood flow back to it and grip tests.

After four more surgeries and several weeks of therapy, Brittain says he has almost regained complete strength in his hand. Pictured: Luke during a follow-up with Dr Lanzinger

After four more surgeries and several weeks of therapy, Brittain says he has almost regained complete strength in his hand. Pictured: Luke during a follow-up with Dr Lanzinger

After four more surgeries and several weeks of therapy, Brittain says he has almost regained complete strength in his hand. Pictured: Luke during a follow-up with Dr Lanzinger

Brittain recently welcomed a daughter with his fiancée, Isabella (pictured)

Brittain recently welcomed a daughter with his fiancée, Isabella (pictured)

He said he hopes his story inspires others going through a difficult journey to not give up hope. Pictured: Brittain during a follow-up visit

He said he hopes his story inspires others going through a difficult journey to not give up hope. Pictured: Brittain during a follow-up visit

Brittain recently welcomed a daughter with his fiancée, Isabella. He said he hopes his story inspires others going through a difficult journey to not give up hope. Pictured: Brittain with Isabella, left, and during a follow-up visit, right

When he started therapy, Brittain wasn’t even able to hold a pencil in his hand, but eventually worked his way up to stress ball and even a baseball.

He also had to undergo four more surgeries to get more mobility in his knuckles, with the last operation performed to correct the positioning of his pinkie finger.   

‘At first, I couldn’t shower on my own, I couldn’t button my pants, I couldn’t tie my shoes,’ Brittain said.

‘It was a lot of adapting…There’s really not a whole lot I can do now that I wasn’t able to before. I can throw a baseball again, so that’s incredible. It’s just more difficult.’   

Today, he is back at work on the grounds crew at Kent State and just welcomed a daughter, Oakleigh, with his fiancée, Isabella, last week.

‘I’ve practiced changing diapers on our little nephew so I should be able to handle that. That’s going to be the big thing,’ he said.

Brittain said that he hopes his story inspires others undergoing difficult health journeys of their own to not give up.

‘I cut my hand off so I very well could have just stopped working out or stopped trying to play baseball right there and nobody would have blamed me,’ he said.

‘That was never an option in my mind [to quit]. It was just immediately: “How can I get back to where I was?”

‘Now that I have a daughter…I can set that example for her. I had more people than just myself to do this for.’

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Covid Vaccine Research: Expert sceptical on Oxford AstraZeneca trial

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covid vaccine research expert sceptical on oxford astrazeneca trial
Hilda Bastian, an accomplished scientist turned writer who blogs for the British Medical Journal (BMJ), claims data from the Oxford trials has been 'patched together'

Hilda Bastian, an accomplished scientist turned writer who blogs for the British Medical Journal (BMJ), claims data from the Oxford trials has been 'patched together'

Hilda Bastian, an accomplished scientist turned writer who blogs for the British Medical Journal (BMJ), claims data from the Oxford trials has been ‘patched together’

The breakthrough results from trials of Oxford University’s coronavirus vaccine are based on ‘shaky science’, an expert has warned.

Hopes of ending the pandemic grew on Monday when scientists announced the jab — which is being manufactured by AstraZeneca — could block up to 90 per cent of Covid-19 infections.

Oxford’s candidate is seen as a potential silver bullet because it costs a fraction of the price of rivals made by Pfizer and Moderna and does not need to be stored in expensive fridges.

But Hilda Bastian, an accomplished scientist turned writer who blogs for the British Medical Journal (BMJ), claims data from the Oxford trials has been ‘patched together’ and excludes results from the groups most vulnerable to Covid.

In a piece for Wired, the Australian said the critical flaw was that a dosing error led to a huge boost in the success rate – experts accidentally gave some volunteers one-and-a-half doses of the jab rather than two full doses that people are meant to get. 

The trials were also never designed to test this hypothesis, which leaves the door open to subconscious biases creeping into the study methods or data, making the study less rigorous.

She wrote: ‘This week’s ‘promising’ results are nothing like the others that we’ve been hearing about in November [the studies the results are based on were less rigorous] — and the claims that have been drawn from them are based on very shaky science.

‘The problems start with the fact that Monday’s announcement did not present results from a single, large-scale, Phase 3 clinical trial, as was the case for earlier bulletins about the BNT-Pfizer and Moderna vaccines…

‘The fact that they may have had to combine data from two trials in order to get a strong enough result raises the first red flag…. As far as we know, some of this analysis could hinge on data from just a few sick people.’

The Oxford vaccine is a genetically engineered common cold virus that used to infect chimpanzees. It has been modified to make it weak so it does not cause illness in people and loaded up with the gene for the coronavirus spike protein, which Covid-19 uses to invade human cells

The Oxford vaccine is a genetically engineered common cold virus that used to infect chimpanzees. It has been modified to make it weak so it does not cause illness in people and loaded up with the gene for the coronavirus spike protein, which Covid-19 uses to invade human cells

The Oxford vaccine is a genetically engineered common cold virus that used to infect chimpanzees. It has been modified to make it weak so it does not cause illness in people and loaded up with the gene for the coronavirus spike protein, which Covid-19 uses to invade human cells

UK has already ordered 100million doses of the vaccine and is expected to be first in line to get it once approved

UK has already ordered 100million doses of the vaccine and is expected to be first in line to get it once approved

UK has already ordered 100million doses of the vaccine and is expected to be first in line to get it once approved

She said this means the findings could be a coincidence, or they could be ‘biased by other factors’.

She added: ‘For example, it has since been revealed that the people who received an initial half-dose — and for whom the vaccine was said to have 90-per cent efficacy —included no one over the age of 55.’

In a previous article last week she also raised minor concerns about the Pfizer vaccine, but they were somewhat less critical than in her recent post.

Professor Natalie Bean, a bio-statistician at the University of Florida, told the Financial Times they still ‘don’t have all the information we need to tell whether these results are reliable’.

‘We certainly don’t have enough information in the public domain to decide whether this half dose is really working,’ she added.

Pfizer’s former president of global research, John LaMattina, has also raised the prospect that the vaccine may not be approved for emergency-use in the US.

He tweeted it was it was ‘hard to believe’ that regulators would give the green light to a vaccine ‘whose optimal dose has only been given to 2,300 people’.

An investment analyst at SVB Leerink, Geoffrey Porges, told the FT the jab was likely to be rejected because the company had ‘tried to embellish their results’ by highlighting its effectiveness in a ‘relatively small subset of subjects in the study’.

Adding pressure to Oxford’s vaccine, a virologist at the Icahn School of Medicine in New York, Florian Krammer, told the New York Times: ‘The only thing that you can really say right now is that the vaccine seems to work’.

And added: ‘It’s just hard to say how well it works compared to others.’ 

But Professor Ian Jones, a virologist at the University of Reading, told MailOnline: ‘We need to keep the positives in mind, that the vaccine is safe and can provide protection. 

‘I have a tiny sense of pride’: Volunteer in Oxford’s coronavirus vaccine trial hails ‘promising’ results 

A volunteer in Oxford University’s coronavirus vaccine trial has revealed she felt a ‘tiny sense of pride’ at taking part in research that could finally beat the virus. 

Sarah Hurst, 47, from South Oxfordshire, said it was a ‘great feeling’ after hearing today that the vaccine could trigger an immune response in up to 90 per cent of those who receive the jab.

Jack Somers, 35, from London, who also took part, said he was ‘very happy’ and felt like his vaccine team had ‘just won’. 

Sarah Hurst, 47, from Goring-on-Thames, who took part in the trials of the vaccine, said she had a 'tiny sense of pride' in helping to prove the jab worked

Sarah Hurst, 47, from Goring-on-Thames, who took part in the trials of the vaccine, said she had a 'tiny sense of pride' in helping to prove the jab worked

Sarah Hurst, 47, from Goring-on-Thames, who took part in the trials of the vaccine, said she had a ‘tiny sense of pride’ in helping to prove the jab worked

The pair, who both work as journalists, received two shots of either the experimental or placebo vaccine. Mr Somers said he suffered side-effects of a pain in his shoulder and slightly raised temperature, but Ms Somers said she didn’t experience any. 

Ms Hurst, who works as a journalist, said: ‘It’s really the developers and everyone who’s done all the work, all the medical students who are constantly all day meeting the vaccine participants and testing them and being on the front line.

‘But it’s good, it’s a great feeling to help to make a vaccine.’

Jack Somers, 35, from London , who also took part, said he was 'very happy' and felt like his vaccine team had 'just won'

Jack Somers, 35, from London , who also took part, said he was 'very happy' and felt like his vaccine team had 'just won'

Jack Somers, 35, from London , who also took part, said he was ‘very happy’ and felt like his vaccine team had ‘just won’ 

Explaining why she signed up, she said: ‘I live near where it’s being done and they were looking for people in the Thames Valley. As soon as I saw that I wanted to get involved to help research a vaccine.’

She underwent health checks and blood tests before receiving her two shots, and filled in a diary to notify researchers of her movements over the course of the study, as well as any symptoms.

‘You have to treat it as if you were in the placebo group anyway, you wouldn’t go out and randomly expose yourself because you don’t know,’ she said.

Despite suffering no side effects, this doesn’t mean she received the placebo. The trial used the meningitis vaccine as a control, which scientists argued would elicit a similar response to the Covid-19 jab. 

She said today’s results were ‘promising’ and noted ‘the fact it doesn’t need to be chilled at a very low temperature and is cheaper than the other vaccines will help in making it easier to distribute’.

‘You have to treat it as if you were in the placebo group anyway, you wouldn’t go out and randomly expose yourself because you don’t know,’ she said. 

‘People have only been vaccinated for a few months so I would still want to know: what are going to be the results after a year? Is it going to be effective after a year?

‘That’s something you really just have to wait for.’

Mr Somers said he found it hard to believe how quickly scientists had developed the vaccine. 

‘I can’t help but take my hat off to the scientists,’ said the freelance journalist from south-west London.

‘I remember six months ago sitting in a hospital watching a safety video, with Professor Matthew Snape at Oxford University talking in quite careful, deliberate, cautious terms about how this vaccine might work or it might not work.

‘Now it seems amazing that we’re here six months later and that jab is very effective at stopping coronavirus.

‘It’s not where I thought we’d be six months ago, it’s not even where I thought we’d be a month ago, but it’s testament to the work of so many people, so many extraordinary people.’ 

Volunteers receive no information about how the trial is going so have been following the progress in the media along with everybody else.

And Mr Sommers said that, while he had been very pleased to read about positive results from other vaccines such as that developed by Pfizer, there was a special feeling about this one. 

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‘It is also a fact that in order to see protection, a Phase 3 trial has to be done in an area of current infection and if the level of infection changes, there may be a need to add additional sites.’

He did concede, however, that ‘the issue of the dose is confusing’. 

He added: ‘That 90 per cent protection was observed in the subset that received the supposed lower dose is really good but I think that would equate to only about 15 people in the 3,000 that received it which may be too low to convince regulators of efficiency, especially if it is not quite clear what the key difference is between it and the higher dose. All this should be much clearer when the full data are published.’

Oxford’s trials found that the jab has a nine in ten chance of working when administered as a half dose first and then a full dose a month later. 

But efficacy drops to mere 62 per cent when someone is given two full doses a month apart.

Oxford has also claimed that its vaccine has an average efficacy of 70 per cent, based on the 62 and 90 per cent figures, which would put the Covid jab on par with good flu vaccines.

But there have been doubts about the reliability of the 70 per cent figure because it has been crudely calculated based on the two regimens, rather than everyone in the trials of all ages. 

And because so far Oxford and AstraZeneca – the British pharmaceutical firm which owns the rights to the jab – have only revealed the percentages in a press release, it is not clear how they arrived at those figures. 

It means the analysis that could seal whether or not the jab is administered to millions of people globally could be based on data from a handful of people – which, again, leaves the door open for other factors to bias in the study.

For example, it has since been revealed that the people who received the reduced dose included no-one over the age of 55 – who are most vulnerable to falling seriously ill or dying from Covid, according to Ms Bastian.

That was not the case for the normal dosed group, raising questions about whether the demographic – rather than dosing – difference is the true driver behind the boosted efficacy. 

The Oxford-AstraZeneca study appears to include few participants over the age of 55, even though the vaccine is being targeted at elderly people. 

Wired reports that people in that demographic were not originally eligible to join the Brazilian trial at all – compared Pfizer’s trial, where 41 per cent were over 55. 

Another flaw, according to Ms Bastian, came from the simple fact the results have been combined from two separate trials in the UK and Brazil, as opposed to one single large-scale study like Pfizer and Moderna’s vaccines. 

Oxford originally planned to conduct a single trial in the UK when it launched its phase three study in May, but coronavirus began to fizzle out over summer which meant not enough volunteers were getting infected naturally. 

A month later a second phase three trial was started in Brazil where transmission had begun to spike. 

But the consequence of splitting the trial in half was that researchers could not control variables as tightly as they could in one single trial done by the same team.

There wasn’t a standardised dosing regimen across both trials and control groups in the studies were not given the same fake vaccine to compare to the Covid jab.

Participants in Brazil were given a saline injection as a placebo, whereas the British arm of the study were given a vaccine for meningitis – which creates an unfair comparison. 

According to emergency-use vaccine guidance issues by Britain’s medical regulator, the MHRA, and the FDA in the US, jabs can be approved if they demonstrate safety and efficacy through a single Phase 3 clinical study. 

Although early results from Oxford’s clinical trials were published on Monday, the study is not completed.

Oxford has started a 30,000-person phase 3 trial in the US to get more accurate and precise data about its vaccine – but the jab could be approved and rolled out within weeks before those results arrive.

Oxford researchers said they intend to publish the full results of the trial in a medical journal in the coming weeks and will then submit an application to the drugs regulator, the MHRA, for a licence to use the vaccine on members of the public.

This process could then take days or weeks for the MHRA to decide whether the jab is good enough to use before it can start to be given out – this is currently expected to be completed in December.

The vaccine uses a harmless adenovirus to deliver genetic material that tricks the human body into producing proteins known as antigens that are normally found on the coronavirus’s surface, helping the immune system develop an arsenal against infection.

Britain has ordered 100million doses, with almost 20million due by Christmas. 

The vaccine is expected to cost just £2 per dose and can be stored cheaply in a normal fridge, unlike other jabs made by Pfizer and Moderna that showed similarly promising results last week but need to be kept in ultra-cold temperatures using expensive equipment. 

It’s also a fraction of the price, with Pfizer’s costing around £15 per dose and Moderna’s priced at about £26 a shot. 

HOW DO THE OXFORD, MODERNA AND PFIZER/BIONTECH VACCINES COMPARE? 

Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech have both released interim results of the final stage clinical trials of their vaccines, with both suggesting they are extremely effective. 

Oxford University has published the findings from its second phase, which show the jab provokes an immune response and is safe to use – it is not yet clear how well it protects against coronavirus in the real world.

Here’s how they compare: 

MODERNA (US)

PFIZER (US) & BIONTECH (DE)

OXFORD UNIVERSITY (UK)

How it works: 

mRNA vaccine – Genetic material from coronavirus is injected to trick immune system into making ‘spike’ proteins and learning how to attack them.

mRNA vaccine – both Moderna’s and Pfizer and BioNTech’s vaccines work in the same way.

Recombinant viral vector vaccine – a harmless cold virus taken from chimpanzees was edited to produce the ‘spike’ proteins and look like the coronavirus.

How well does it work?

94.5% effective (90 positive in placebo group, 5 positive in vaccine group) .

95% effective (160 positive in placebo group, 8 positive in vaccine group).

62% – 90% effective, depending on dosing.

How much does it cost?

Moderna confirmed it will charge countries placing smaller orders, such as the UK’s five million doses, between £24 and £28 per dose. US has secured 100million doses for $1.525billion (£1.16bn), suggesting it will cost $15.25 (£11.57) per dose.

The US will pay $1.95bn (£1.48bn) for the first 100m doses, a cost of $19.50 (£14.80) per dose.

Expected to cost £2.23 per dose. The UK’s full 100m dose supply could amount to just £223million.

Can we get hold of it?

UK has ordered five million doses which will become available from March 2021. Moderna will produce 20m doses this year, expected to stay in the US. 

UK has already ordered 40million doses, of which 10million could be available in 2020. First vaccinations expected in December.

UK has already ordered 100million doses and is expected to be first in line to get it once approved.

What side effects does it cause? 

Moderna said the vaccine is ‘generally safe and well tolerated’. Most side effects were mild or moderate but included pain, fatigue and headache, which were ‘generally’ short-lived. 

Pfizer and BioNTech did not produce a breakdown of side effects but said the Data Monitoring Committee ‘has not reported any serious safety concerns’.

Oxford said there have been no serious safety concerns. Mild side effects have been relatively common in small trials, with many participants reporting that their arm hurt after the jab and they later suffered a headache, exhaustion or muscle pain. More data is being collected.

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The Oxford scientists behind new COVID vaccine: A mother of triplets who is ‘used to working on no sleep’, the biologist who failed to get into medical school and an Everest mountaineer are all on team 

They are the lab-coat wearing virus-fighting team who may have landed the killer blow in the battle against Covid-19.

Oxford University has today announced its clinical trial results for its jab, which show it is up to 90 per cent effective at stopping the virus.  

The news is a huge boost to the Government, which already has 4million doses ready to be administered as soon as it’s approved and has ordered 100million.

The jab is expected to cost just £2 a time and can be stored cheaply in a normal fridge, unlike other vaccines made by Pfizer and Moderna that showed similarly promising results last week but need to be kept in ultra-cold temperatures using expensive equipment.

But who are the ‘fantastic five’ behind the newest jab – which the Government hope could help restore normality to British life?

Sarah Gilbert

Sarah Gilbert is a British vaccinologist who is Professor of Vaccinology at Oxford University.

Leading the team is Sarah Gilbert, a British vaccinologist who is Professor of Vaccinology at Oxford University

Leading the team is Sarah Gilbert, a British vaccinologist who is Professor of Vaccinology at Oxford University

Leading the team is Sarah Gilbert, a British vaccinologist who is Professor of Vaccinology at Oxford University

She has more than 25 years experience in the field and has previously led the development and testing of a universal flu vaccine, which underwent clinical trials in 2011.

Professor Gilbert is not just busy at work, she’s got her hands full at home too, being the mother of triplets. 

Born in April 1962, she attended Kettering High School, before attending the University of East Anglia, in Norwich, where she studied Biological Science and later University of Hull for her doctoral degree.

She later took roles in Gloucestershire, Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire before joining the lab of Irish vaccinologist Adrian Hill, where she carried out research into malaria. The pair are both involved in Oxford University spin-off biotech firm Vaccitech.

She was made Professor at the Oxford-based Jenner Trust in 2010 and started work on research for a universal flu vaccine, which underwent clinical trials in 2011.

The 58-year-old’s work this year on the Covid-19 vaccine has earned her a spot on The Times’ ‘Science Power List’ in May 2020.

She has had to juggle the intense work with her home life, including being a mother to triplets – all of who are now at university.

Earlier this year, Professor Gilbert told the Independent: ‘I’m trained for it – I’m the mother of triplets.

‘If you get four hours a night with triplets, you’re doing very well. I’ve been through this.’ 

Adrian Hill

Adrian Hill is an Irish vaccinologist and director of the Jenner Institute - which develops vaccines and carries out clinical trials for diseases including Malaria, Tuberculosis and Ebola

Adrian Hill is an Irish vaccinologist and director of the Jenner Institute - which develops vaccines and carries out clinical trials for diseases including Malaria, Tuberculosis and Ebola

Adrian Hill is an Irish vaccinologist and director of the Jenner Institute – which develops vaccines and carries out clinical trials for diseases including Malaria, Tuberculosis and Ebola

Adrian Hill is an Irish vaccinologist and director of the Jenner Institute – which develops vaccines and carries out clinical trials for diseases including Malaria, Tuberculosis and Ebola.

Formed in November 2005, the institute is named after Edward Jenner – the inventor of vaccinations.

Born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1958, Professor Hill attended Belvedere College in Dublin for secondary school. He later went on to study medicine at Trinity College in Dublin, before transferring to Magdelan College in Oxford – where he completed the rest of his medical degree.

He later joined charity the Wellcome Trust and in 2014 he led a clinical trial of a vaccine for Ebola following the outbreak in Africa.

According to the New York Times, Professor Hill became interested in vaccines in the early 1980s, when he visited an uncle who was a priest working in a hospital in Zimbabwe. 

He said: ‘I came back wondering, ‘What do you see in these hospitals in England and Ireland?’. They don’t have any of these diseases.’ 

Andrew Pollard

Andrew Pollard is the director of the vaccine group. He is also a Professor of paediatric infection and immunity at the University of Oxford

Andrew Pollard is the director of the vaccine group. He is also a Professor of paediatric infection and immunity at the University of Oxford

Andrew Pollard is the director of the vaccine group. He is also a Professor of paediatric infection and immunity at the University of Oxford

Andrew Pollard is the director of the Oxford vaccine group. He is also a Professor of paediatric infection and immunity at the University of Oxford, honorary consultant paediatrician at Oxford Children’s Hospital and Vice Master of St Cross College, Oxford.

After obtaining his medical degree at St Bartholomew’s Hospital Medical School at the University of London in 1989, he trained in paediatrics at Birmingham’s Children’s Hospital.

He later specialised in Paediatric Infectious Diseases at St Mary’s Hospital, London, UK and at British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada. 

He has been a member of the World Health Organisation’s SAGE committee on Immunisation since 2016.

He has published 46 papers in his field and has supervised 37 PhD students.

His publications includes over 500 manuscripts and books on various topics in paediatrics and infectious diseases.

Outside of work, Professor Pollard made the first British ascent of Jaonli (6632m) in 1988 and Chamlang in 1991 (7309m) and was the Deputy Leader of the successful 1994 British Medical Everest Expedition.

Teresa (Tess) Lambe  

Teresa Lambe is an associate professor and investigator at the Jenner Institute. She has previous experience working on vaccine research, including into Ebola, the common flu and MERS - another coronavirus

Teresa Lambe is an associate professor and investigator at the Jenner Institute. She has previous experience working on vaccine research, including into Ebola, the common flu and MERS - another coronavirus

Teresa Lambe is an associate professor and investigator at the Jenner Institute. She has previous experience working on vaccine research, including into Ebola, the common flu and MERS – another coronavirus

Teresa Lambe is an associate professor and investigator at the Jenner Institute. 

She has previous experience working on vaccine research, including into Ebola, the common flu and MERS – another coronavirus.

Dr Lambe grew up in County Kildare, Ireland, and went on to study pharmacology and molecular genetics at University College Dublin, before moving to Oxford University in 2002.

Outside of her work she likes to job and spend time with her husband and children, something which she says she has not had much time to do this year. 

She told the Irish Times: ‘I love science and working on vaccines, and I am lucky that this means I get to do something constructive in this pandemic. I want to help, and that keeps me going.’  

Professor Katie Ewer

Despite being unable to make the grade for medical school, Katie Ewer did not give up on her dreams. She took up microbiologist instead, and grew fascinated by infectious diseases

Despite being unable to make the grade for medical school, Katie Ewer did not give up on her dreams. She took up microbiologist instead, and grew fascinated by infectious diseases

Despite being unable to make the grade for medical school, Katie Ewer did not give up on her dreams. She took up microbiologist instead, and grew fascinated by infectious diseases

Despite being unable to make the grade for medical school, Katie Ewer did not give up on her dreams.

She took up microbiology instead, and grew fascinated by infectious diseases.

After completing her PhD in the subject she joined Oxford University’s Jenner Institute – where she has spent the last 13 years working on a malaria vaccine.

She is now a senior scientist at the Jenner Institute.

When asked by Esquire magazine earlier this year whether the work to develop a vaccine had been stressful, she simply replied: ‘Yes.’

She added: ‘I try not to think about it too much.’

Professor Ewer also added that she has stopped using social media, adding: ‘I had to stop engaging with it because if I think too much about it, I get really stressed.’

 

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This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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