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Losing weight before middle age ‘can halve death risk’

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losing weight before middle age can halve death risk

Cutting the fat between young adulthood and midlife can half your risk of a premature death, a new study shows.

Reductions in body mass index (BMI) between the ages of 25 and 40 is critical to living a long life, US researchers said. 

People whose BMIs went from the ‘obese’ range in early adulthood down to less than ‘seriously overweight’ in midlife cut the risk of dying by 54 per cent, they report. 

Weight loss after middle age does not significantly reduce the risk of death, however, showing people are best advised to combat fat in midlife at the very latest. 

Changes in weight between young adulthood and midlife may have important consequences for a person's risk of early death

Changes in weight between young adulthood and midlife may have important consequences for a person's risk of early death

Changes in weight between young adulthood and midlife may have important consequences for a person’s risk of early death 

Carrying extra fat can lead to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and even dementia in later life. 

Around one eighth of early deaths in the US may be attributable to a higher BMI at any point between early- and mid-adulthood.

While in England, the number of obese people has almost doubled in the last 20 years from 6.9 million to 13 million, according to Diabetes UK – around 29 per cent of total English adults. 

‘The results indicate an important opportunity to improve population health through primary and secondary prevention of obesity, particularly at younger ages,’ said study author Dr Andrew Stokes, assistant professor of global health at Boston University School of Public Health in the US.

WHAT IS BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)? 

Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on your weight in relation to your height. 

Standard Formula:

  • BMI = (weight in pounds / (height in inches x height in inches)) x 703

Metric Formula:

  • BMI = (weight in kilograms / (height in meters x height in meters))

Measurements:

  • Under 18.5: Underweight
  • 18.5 – 24.9: Healthy
  • 25 – 29.9: Overweight
  • 30 or greater: Obese 
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The researchers used data from 1998 to 2015 for 24,205 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 

Also known as NHNES, the program is designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the US across generations through interviews and physical assessments.   

Participants were between 40 and 74 years old when they entered the study, at which point they had their BMI taken. 

All participants selected for the study had also had their BMI taken at the age of 25. 

Researchers then analysed the link between BMI change and the likelihood that a participant died over the course of the observed period, controlling for other factors such as their sex, education level and whether or not they smoked. 

They found that participants whose BMIs went from the ‘obese’ range at age 25 down to the ‘overweight’ range in midlife were 54 per cent less likely to have died than participants whose BMIs stayed in the ‘obese’ range. 

These participants who went from ‘obese’ to ‘overweight’ had a risk of death closer to that of participants whose BMIs had been in the ‘overweight’ range all along. 

Lowest death rates were among individuals whose BMI stayed within the normal or ‘healthy’ range, which is deemed to be between 18.5 and 24.9.

The researchers estimated that 3.2 per cent of deaths in the study would have been avoided if everyone with a BMI in the ‘obese’ range at age 25 had been able to bring their BMIs down to the ‘overweight’ range by midlife. 

In England, the number of obese people has almost doubled in the last 20 years from 6.9 million to 13 million, Diabetes UK reported late last year

In England, the number of obese people has almost doubled in the last 20 years from 6.9 million to 13 million, Diabetes UK reported late last year

In England, the number of obese people has almost doubled in the last 20 years from 6.9 million to 13 million, Diabetes UK reported late last year

However, weight loss was rare overall – only 0.8 per cent of participants had BMIs that went from the ‘obese’ to the ‘overweight’ range. 

No significant reduction in risk of death for participants who lost weight in old age may be because weight loss during this time is more likely to be tied to an ageing person’s worsening health. 

Although leaving it until middle age to start losing some substantial weight is not advisable, the study does give some hope that it’s not past all hope as we approach midlife.  

‘Although this study focused on preventing premature deaths, maintaining a healthy weight will also reduce the burden of many chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and even cancer,’ said study co-author Dr JoAnn Manson, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.

The study has been published in JAMA Network Open.  

WHAT IS OBESITY?ADULTS WITH A BMI OVER 30 ARE SEEN AS OBESE

Obesity is defined as an adult having a BMI of 30 or over.

A healthy person’s BMI – calculated by dividing weight in kg by height in metres, and the answer by the height again – is between 18.5 and 24.9. 

Among children, obesity is defined as being in the 95th percentile.

Percentiles compare youngsters to others their same age. 

For example, if a three-month-old is in the 40th percentile for weight, that means that 40 per cent of three-month-olds weigh the same or less than that baby.

Around 58 per cent of women and 68 per cent of men in the UK are overweight or obese. 

The condition costs the NHS around £6.1billion, out of its approximate £124.7 billion budget, every year.

This is due to obesity increasing a person’s risk of a number of life-threatening conditions.

Such conditions include type 2 diabetes, which can cause kidney disease, blindness and even limb amputations.

Research suggests that at least one in six hospital beds in the UK are taken up by a diabetes patient.

Obesity also raises the risk of heart disease, which kills 315,000 people every year in the UK – making it the number one cause of death.

Carrying dangerous amounts of weight has also been linked to 12 different cancers. 

This includes breast, which affects one in eight women at some point in their lives.

Among children, research suggests that 70 per cent of obese youngsters have high blood pressure or raised cholesterol, which puts them at risk of heart disease.

Obese children are also significantly more likely to become obese adults. 

And if children are overweight, their obesity in adulthood is often more severe.  

As many as one in five children start school in the UK being overweight or obese, which rises to one in three by the time they turn 10.  

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Britons sink a few drinks while making the most of 70F sun with warm weather to last until Tuesday

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britons sink a few drinks while making the most of 70f sun with warm weather to last until tuesday

Britons have flocked out to enjoy the last of the summer sunshine this weekend as rain is set to sweep across the nation next week.

Temperatures reached a pleasant 77F (25C) in some parts of the UK today, with people heading out across the UK to enjoy the last weekend of summer weather before rain is set to hit the nation next week. 

The warm and sunny weather comes on the first weekend since the Government introduced its new ‘rule of six’ rule amid the coronavirus pandemic.

But people still flocked outdoors to make the most of the last rays of sunshine before temperatures become cooler next week, with Tuesday and Wednesday bringing rain in from the north west of the UK. 

The Met Office had forecast a weekend of ‘largely dry, bright and fine’ weather, which has seen temperatures rise as high as 77F (25C) across the first day of the weekend.

The Met Office had forecast a weekend of 'largely dry, bright and fine' weather, which could see temperatures rise as high as 24C (75F). Pictured, picknickers enjoy the warm sunshine on the first weekend the 'rule of six' is in force

The Met Office had forecast a weekend of 'largely dry, bright and fine' weather, which could see temperatures rise as high as 24C (75F). Pictured, picknickers enjoy the warm sunshine on the first weekend the 'rule of six' is in force

The Met Office had forecast a weekend of ‘largely dry, bright and fine’ weather, which could see temperatures rise as high as 24C (75F). Pictured, picknickers enjoy the warm sunshine on the first weekend the ‘rule of six’ is in force

Metropolitan Police urged Londoners (above, drinkers at a pub in southwest London) to 'continue to act responsibly' amid forecasts of warm weather for the capital over the weekend

Metropolitan Police urged Londoners (above, drinkers at a pub in southwest London) to 'continue to act responsibly' amid forecasts of warm weather for the capital over the weekend

Metropolitan Police urged Londoners (above, drinkers at a pub in southwest London) to ‘continue to act responsibly’ amid forecasts of warm weather for the capital over the weekend

Ollie Claydon, a spokesperson for the Met Office, said that the warm weekend temperatures would come ahead of a more 'unsettled' week of weather. Above, people enjoy the warm weather in central London on September 19

Ollie Claydon, a spokesperson for the Met Office, said that the warm weekend temperatures would come ahead of a more 'unsettled' week of weather. Above, people enjoy the warm weather in central London on September 19

 Ollie Claydon, a spokesperson for the Met Office, said that the warm weekend temperatures would come ahead of a more ‘unsettled’ week of weather. Above, people enjoy the warm weather in central London on September 19

Britons sat outside to enjoy drinks in southwest London today as temperatures reached highs of 77F (25C) at Heathrow and are set to continue further into the weekend

Britons sat outside to enjoy drinks in southwest London today as temperatures reached highs of 77F (25C) at Heathrow and are set to continue further into the weekend

Britons sat outside to enjoy drinks in southwest London today as temperatures reached highs of 77F (25C) at Heathrow and are set to continue further into the weekend

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33376872 8750865 image a 23 1600535787900

Highs of 77F (25C) were recorded at Heathrow across today, as temperatures are set to hit similar highs tomorrow.

Kew Gardens and St James Park in London both reached 77F, with Kin Loch Ewe in Scotland also hitting 75F (24C). 

Ollie Claydon, a spokesperson for the Met Office, said that the warm weekend temperatures would come ahead of a more ‘unsettled’ week of weather.

‘We’re in for a dry and fine evening on Saturday, with clear conditions for central parts of the UK and northern Ireland,’ he said.

‘There’s a risk of showers but temperatures will stay high.

‘But then a cold front from the north west around lunchtime on Monday will herald the arrival of cooler, more unsettled weather next week.’

The September warmth follows on from an August heatwave which saw temperatures hit 93F (34C) for six days running last month. 

Groups of kitesurfers and windsurfers made the most of the the sunny, yet blustery weather, in Portland, Weymouth, today

Groups of kitesurfers and windsurfers made the most of the the sunny, yet blustery weather, in Portland, Weymouth, today

Groups of kitesurfers and windsurfers made the most of the the sunny, yet blustery weather, in Portland, Weymouth, today

Temperatures reached a warm 77F (25C) today, with people heading out across the UK (above, people at Boscombe beach in Dorset) to enjoy the last weekend of summer weather before rain is set to hit the nation next week

Temperatures reached a warm 77F (25C) today, with people heading out across the UK (above, people at Boscombe beach in Dorset) to enjoy the last weekend of summer weather before rain is set to hit the nation next week

Temperatures reached a warm 77F (25C) today, with people heading out across the UK (above, people at Boscombe beach in Dorset) to enjoy the last weekend of summer weather before rain is set to hit the nation next week

People in southwest London made the most of the warm weather as concerns of a second coronavirus wave rise after the new 'rule of six' came into force earlier this week

People in southwest London made the most of the warm weather as concerns of a second coronavirus wave rise after the new 'rule of six' came into force earlier this week

People in southwest London made the most of the warm weather as concerns of a second coronavirus wave rise after the new ‘rule of six’ came into force earlier this week

Any social gathering of more than six people in England is against the law, with people facing fines of up to £3,200 if they do not abide by the new measure, which applies to indoor and outdoor settings

Any social gathering of more than six people in England is against the law, with people facing fines of up to £3,200 if they do not abide by the new measure, which applies to indoor and outdoor settings

Any social gathering of more than six people in England is against the law, with people facing fines of up to £3,200 if they do not abide by the new measure, which applies to indoor and outdoor settings

The highest temperature ever recorded in September was 96.08F (35.6C) on September 2, 1906, but they ‘don’t look like they’re going to come anywhere close to that in this current hot spell’, the forecaster said.

The warmest September day of recent years was September 13, 2016, when 93.9F (34.4C) was recorded at Gravesend, Kent – the warmest day of that year.

It comes as police forces across the UK urged people to comply with the Government’s new ‘rule of six’ during the warm and sunny weather this weekend.

Further lockdown measures were also introduced in northern parts of England, with 10pm curfews being introduced in some areas across the northeast. 

Police officers in Manchester urged people to comply with coronavirus restrictions after they were called to reports of a wedding party at a home. 

Greater Manchester Police said officers attended a property in Wythenshawe on Friday evening, having received intelligence that a wedding party was being held.

‘Police attended and found that a gazebo had been erected in the garden of a property,’ the force tweeted.

‘Officers prevented the illegal gathering before restrictions were breached.’

Police forces across the country have urged people to comply with the 'rule of six' across the sunny weekend as fears of another national lockdown increase

Police forces across the country have urged people to comply with the 'rule of six' across the sunny weekend as fears of another national lockdown increase

Police forces across the country have urged people to comply with the ‘rule of six’ across the sunny weekend as fears of another national lockdown increase

Any social gathering of more than six people in England is against the law, with people facing fines of up to £3,200 if they do not abide by the new measure. Above, small groups sit outside pubs and cafes in southwest London

Any social gathering of more than six people in England is against the law, with people facing fines of up to £3,200 if they do not abide by the new measure. Above, small groups sit outside pubs and cafes in southwest London

Any social gathering of more than six people in England is against the law, with people facing fines of up to £3,200 if they do not abide by the new measure. Above, small groups sit outside pubs and cafes in southwest London

Highs of 77F (25C) were recorded at Heathrow across today, as temperatures are set to hit similar highs tomorrow. Pictured, groups enjoy the warm sunshine at Hyde Park in London

Highs of 77F (25C) were recorded at Heathrow across today, as temperatures are set to hit similar highs tomorrow. Pictured, groups enjoy the warm sunshine at Hyde Park in London

Highs of 77F (25C) were recorded at Heathrow across today, as temperatures are set to hit similar highs tomorrow. Pictured, groups enjoy the warm sunshine at Hyde Park in London

Meanwhile, Assistant Chief Constable Claire Nix, of Kent Police, said there would be an increased presence in ‘key areas’ around the county, as Covid-19 remains a ‘real and deadly threat’.  

The Metropolitan Police urged Londoners to ‘continue to act responsibly’ amid forecasts of warm weather for the capital over the weekend.

The force said it will continue to patrol public spaces and respond to incidents where groups of more than six are gathering, reminding the public of fines for breaching coronavirus guidelines.

Any social gathering of more than six people in England is against the law, with people facing fines of up to £3,200 if they do not abide by the new measure, which applies to both indoor and outdoor settings.

And forces in Dorset, where large crowds have previously flocked to the beaches to enjoy the heat, also warned that anyone flouting the new ‘rule of six’ over the weekend may be subject to fines. 

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Alexei Navalny back up and walking after treatment for nerve agent poisoning at Berlin hospital

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alexei navalny back up and walking after treatment for nerve agent poisoning at berlin hospital

Russian politician Alexei Navalny is back up and walking just days after being taken off a ventilator.

Navalny, the political opponent of Russian president Vladimir Putin, shared a photo of himself walking down stairs at Berlin‘s Charité Hospital, where he is continuing his recovery from being poisoned in late August.

He has said he intends to return to Russia as western governments demand an explanation from the Kremlin. 

Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny is 'continuing to improve,' doctors say. He shared a photo and an update about his recovery from novichok nerve agent poisoning, writing that doctors at Berlin's Charité Hospital had transformed him from "technically alive" to someone with a chance at a real recovery. He said he still has issues pouring water and using his phone, but is up and walking after being taken off a ventilator earlier in the week.

Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny is 'continuing to improve,' doctors say. He shared a photo and an update about his recovery from novichok nerve agent poisoning, writing that doctors at Berlin's Charité Hospital had transformed him from "technically alive" to someone with a chance at a real recovery. He said he still has issues pouring water and using his phone, but is up and walking after being taken off a ventilator earlier in the week.

Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny is ‘continuing to improve,’ doctors say. He shared a photo and an update about his recovery from novichok nerve agent poisoning, writing that doctors at Berlin’s Charité Hospital had transformed him from “technically alive” to someone with a chance at a real recovery. He said he still has issues pouring water and using his phone, but is up and walking after being taken off a ventilator earlier in the week.

Laboratory tests confirmed Navalny, who was airlifted to Germany after falling ill in Siberia, was poisoned with a novichok nerve agent that is tightly controlled by the Russian government.

Navalny shared an update of his recovery on Instagram, posting a photo of him walking downstairs in the hospital wearing a navy blue t-shirt, sweatpants, and blue rubber gloves. 

He said: ‘This is a clear road, albeit a long one.’

Navalny wrote that he has trouble pouring himself some water and using his phone, describing it as ‘useless as a stone’.

Russian president Vladimir Putin (right) called accusations about possible Kremlin involvement in Navalny's poisoning 'unsubstantiated' in a call with French president Emmanuel Macron (left). Navalny is Putin's political rival and a vocal critic of the long-standing leader (file photo).

Russian president Vladimir Putin (right) called accusations about possible Kremlin involvement in Navalny's poisoning 'unsubstantiated' in a call with French president Emmanuel Macron (left). Navalny is Putin's political rival and a vocal critic of the long-standing leader (file photo).

Russian president Vladimir Putin (right) called accusations about possible Kremlin involvement in Navalny’s poisoning ‘unsubstantiated’ in a call with French president Emmanuel Macron (left). Navalny is Putin’s political rival and a vocal critic of the long-standing leader (file photo).

He said ‘there are so many problems still to be solved’ but that doctors had transformed him from ‘technically alive’ to someone who had a chance of living a normal life again.

Charité Hospital said on Monday that Navalny’s condition ‘continues to improve’.

‘The patient has been successfully removed from mechanical ventilation. He is currently undergoing mobilization and is able to leave his bed for short periods of time.’  

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Axeman jailed for four years after inflicting ‘worst example of grievous bodily harm’ judge had seen

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axeman jailed for four years after inflicting worst example of grievous bodily harm judge had seen

An axeman has been jailed for four years after inflicting the ‘worst example of grievous bodily harm’ a veteran judge had ever seen following a row with his drinking partner.  

Leon Green had been at a pub in Chard, Somerset, with victim Joseph Guppy before going back to the other man’s home.

It was then that the 34-year-old lost his temper and launched the vicious axe attack which left the victim with multiple wounds and a small fracture of the skull.

Green denied causing grievous bodily harm but was found guilty at Taunton Crown Court in July.

He has since been jailed for four years and ten months with a one-year extended licence, by Judge Linford, who was sitting at Exeter Crown Court. 

The sentence was the maximum allowed. 

Leon Green (pictured) has been jailed for four years after inflicting the 'worst example of grievous bodily harm' a veteran judge had ever seen following a row with his drinking partner

Leon Green (pictured) has been jailed for four years after inflicting the 'worst example of grievous bodily harm' a veteran judge had ever seen following a row with his drinking partner

Leon Green (pictured) has been jailed for four years after inflicting the ‘worst example of grievous bodily harm’ a veteran judge had ever seen following a row with his drinking partner

Judge Robert Linford declared that Green is a danger to the public and said the attack on Mr Guppy could easily have killed the victim.

He said some of the photographs of the wounds had even been too intense to shown the jury at the original trial at Taunton Crown Court.

Green has a long record of violence and dishonesty, including a burglary at the Yeovil Labour Club last year where he caused thousands of pounds of damage trying to break into the bar. 

He carried out the axe attack when he was part way through a ‘thinking skills course’ which he was sent on for stabbing a man with a screwdriver. 

The judge told Green: ‘You went back to Mr Guppy’s house where he was clowning around and dancing around and at some point his hand went close to your face. It was not an aggressive mood.

‘It set off the most extreme reaction. You picked up an axe and struck him repeatedly about the head and body and caused multiple wounds and a small fracture of the skull.

‘It is astonishing the injuries were not more serious than they were. You could have killed him. This is the worst example of grievous bodily harm I have ever encountered.

‘The probation report came to the conclusion that because of your record of violence and the facts of this case, you are a dangerous offender. I am in no doubt whatsoever about it.’

Green denied causing grievous bodily harm but was found guilty at Taunton Crown Court (pictured) in July

Green denied causing grievous bodily harm but was found guilty at Taunton Crown Court (pictured) in July

Green denied causing grievous bodily harm but was found guilty at Taunton Crown Court (pictured) in July

Miss Virginia Cornwall, prosecuting, said the attack on Mr Guppy happened at his home in High Street, Chard, on the night of October 10 last year after he and Green had been drinking in a nearby pub.

The burglary at the Labour Club in Yeovil took place on July 27, 2019 and police were called by a neighbour who heard banging noises from inside in the middle of the night.    

Green and another man were arrested and the club had to be closed temporarily to repair doors and shutters which had been smashed.

Mr Patrick Mason, defending, said all Green’s offending arose from a disrupted childhood in which he stopped going to school when he was 13 or 14 and fell into the company of criminals.

He said the axe attack had been excessive self defence and the raid on the Labour Club happened at a time when Green was homeless and desperate.

Green, of Perrythorne Park, Yeovil, denied causing grievous bodily harm but was found guilty at Taunton Crown Court in July. He also admitted burglary.

He was jailed for four years and ten months with a one year extended licence, by Judge Linford, who was sitting at Exeter Crown Court. The sentence was the maximum allowed. 

Police praised the courage of the victim and welcomed the sentence.

PC Jim Card said: ‘This was an extremely unpleasant incident in which Leon Green used an axe to assault another man at a property in High Street, Chard. 

‘His actions were dangerous and could have easily resulted in far more serious consequences.

‘I’d like to thank the victim and the witness for supporting our investigation and I welcome the custodial sentence given to Green in court today.’

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