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AI can diagnose Osteoarthritis by analysing cartilage texture 3 years before it starts wearing away

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ai can diagnose osteoarthritis by analysing cartilage texture 3 years before it starts wearing away

AI can be used to to determine whether someone will develop Osteoarthritis by analysing cartilage texture three years before it starts wearing away, study found.

Researchers from John Hopkins Hospital and others ran an artificial intelligence model over scans of 86 people with no discernible symptoms of osteoarthritis.

The machine learning model was about to detect the beginning stages of the condition with 78 per cent accuracy up to three years before symptom onset.

In the UK about 8.5 million people have Osteoarthritis, a condition which causes joints to become painful and stiff – particularly in people over the age of 65.

If the condition can be detected early a combination of weight loss and exercise could make Osteoarthritis less severe when it happens – or even delay onset. 

Researchers from John Hopkins Hospital and others ran an artificial intelligence model over scans of 86 people with no discernible symptoms of Osteoarthritis. Stock image

Researchers from John Hopkins Hospital and others ran an artificial intelligence model over scans of 86 people with no discernible symptoms of Osteoarthritis. Stock image

A number of diseases – including Osteoarthritis – lack any visual cues in the early stages which elude image-based detection such as x-ray or MRI.

When it comes to Osteoarthritis, by the time it is diagnosed it is already at an irreversible stage – well after bone damage has already been caused.  

Current treatment focuses on palliative care or invasive and costly surgery and combined with other musculoskeletal conditions cost the NHS £10.2 billion per year. 

As osteoarthritis primarily affects older people and the population is getting older, it is thought that figure could rise to over £118 billion in the next decade, the NHS said. 

Even after symptoms have started and irreversible bone damage has set in, it is still difficult to use medical imaging to correlate pain symptoms to disease progression.

There is some evidence that the condition could be reversible in future – with the right therapies and treatments, the researchers claim.

Early biochemical changes that occur in cartilage often seem to precede pain and bone damage symptoms by several years. This model looks for those changes.

‘In the future, our approach may enable more accurate image-based assessments of early disease development,’ the team said, adding it could also improve the ability to track the condition as it develops.

The new technique developed by the US researchers will allow doctors to spot signs of the condition developing before it becomes irreversible. 

They use artificial intelligence to hunt for patterns in MRI scan images and could even allow for the automated discovery of future damage in cartilage maps.

‘Future symptomatic osteoarthritis could potentially be predicted up to three years prior to the current gold standard diagnosis,’ the study authors wrote.

They assessed the cartilage in healthy people using their technique and designed a diagnostic system that appears to be able to predict early-stage osteoarthritis. 

There are limitations to the current research – it was based on a limited pool of 86 subjects and a machine learning model benefits from as large of a pool as possible.

‘With increasing sample size, machine-learning techniques become more robust to variations that may exist within a population,’ the team explained. 

AI can be used to to determine whether someone will develop Osteoarthritis by analysing cartilage texture three years before it starts wearing away, study found. Stock image

AI can be used to to determine whether someone will develop Osteoarthritis by analysing cartilage texture three years before it starts wearing away, study found. Stock image

As there is currently no reliable method to detect pre-symptomatic osteoarthritis at the potentially reversible early stages, this could be a vital step forward.

Spotting it before it starts to damage the joints, the team say future therapies could be developed that may even prevent the disease from taking hold. 

More research is needed before this technique could be used in a clinical setting, including a larger study to test the AI model – a larger sample size will see if it spots unusual variations.

Researchers also want to do tests that compare actual cartilage chemical conditions to the model predictions to ensure they are accurate. 

The method they’ve developed may even be able to be adapted to detect early stages of other conditions such as cancers, retinopathy and dementia. 

The findings have been published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

OSTEOARTHRITIS: A CONDITION THAT OCCURS WHEN JOINT SURFACES BECOME DAMAGED

Osteoarthritis – sometimes called ‘wear and tear’ – is a condition that occurs when the surfaces within joints become damaged.

Osteoarthritis - sometimes called 'wear and tear' - is a condition that occurs when the surfaces within joints become damaged

Osteoarthritis – sometimes called ‘wear and tear’ – is a condition that occurs when the surfaces within joints become damaged

Cartilage covering the ends of bones gradually thin over time, and the bone thickens, according to Versus Arthritis

Around a third of people aged 45 years and over in the UK suffer from the condition. This equates to roughly 8.75 million people. 

At least 20 million are known to suffer in the US.

The severity of symtoms can vary greatly from person to person and between different affected joints, according to the NHS. 

Almost any joint can be affected by osteoarthritis but more often causes problems int he knees, hips and small joints of the hands.  

The exact cause of the condition is not known but a number of things can increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis.

These include: 

  • Joint injury – overusing a joint if it hasn’t had time to heal

  • Other conditions – rheumatoid arthritis and gout can increase risk

  • Age – the risk of developing the condition increases with age

  • Family history – it may run in families but not single gene has been found

  • Obesity – being obese puts a strain on joints such as knees and hips

  • Being a woman – the condition is more common in women than men  

It is different to rheumatoid arthritis, a long-term illness in which the immune system causes the body to attack itself, causing painful, swollen and stiff joints. 

Replacement joints are often necessary for osteoarthritis patients, because the joint has been worn down and causes agonising pain.

 

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Blue Moon: Once-in-19-years event to occur on Halloween night

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blue moon once in 19 years event to occur on halloween night

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is set to rise on the same day. 

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET.

Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1.

The cosmic display happens seven times every 19 years, which means the world will not see the next one on October 31 until 2039.

However, this is the first time a Blue Moon has appeared across the world on Halloween since World War II.

Scroll down for video 

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

It should make for a spectacular show on Halloween that has not happened since 1944.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia.

The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine.

This issue published an an article called Once in a Blue Moon by James Hugh Pruett, who referred to the 1937 Maine Farmer’s Almanac, but with a simpler definition.

‘Seven times in 19 years there were – and still are – 13 full moons in a year,’ he wrote.

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

‘This gives 11 months with one full moon each and one with two.’

‘This second in a month, so I interpret it, was called Blue Moon.’

A moon can turn blue, but the signing is very rare.

NASA shares that this is also deemed the Hunter’s Moon, the full moon that follows the Harvest Moon that appeared on October 1. 

‘According to the Farmer’s Almanac, with the leaves falling and the deer fattened, this was the time to hunt. Since the harvesters had reaped the fields, hunters could easily see the animals that have come out to glean (and the foxes that have come out to prey on them),’ reads NASA’s statement.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia 

‘The earliest use of the term ‘Hunter’s Moon’ cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1710.’ 

On Halloween night, Jupiter will appear in the southwest and Mars will shine brightly in the east-southeast.

However, at 2am ET we ‘fall back’ one hour to 1am ET -but the good news is, you will have an extra hour of sleep. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Blue Moon: Rare lunar spectacle WORLDWIDE for first time since WWII

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blue moon rare lunar spectacle worldwide for first time since wwii

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is set to rise on the same day. 

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET.

Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1.

The cosmic display happens seven times every 19 years, which means the world will not see the next one on October 31 until 2039.

However, this is the first time a Blue Moon has appeared across the world on Halloween since World War II.

Scroll down for video 

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

It should make for a spectacular show on Halloween that has not happened since 1944.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia.

The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine.

This issue published an an article called Once in a Blue Moon by James Hugh Pruett, who referred to the 1937 Maine Farmer’s Almanac, but with a simpler definition.

‘Seven times in 19 years there were – and still are – 13 full moons in a year,’ he wrote.

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

‘This gives 11 months with one full moon each and one with two.’

‘This second in a month, so I interpret it, was called Blue Moon.’

A moon can turn blue, but the signing is very rare.

NASA shares that this is also deemed the Hunter’s Moon, the full moon that follows the Harvest Moon that appeared on October 1. 

‘According to the Farmer’s Almanac, with the leaves falling and the deer fattened, this was the time to hunt. Since the harvesters had reaped the fields, hunters could easily see the animals that have come out to glean (and the foxes that have come out to prey on them),’ reads NASA’s statement.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia 

‘The earliest use of the term ‘Hunter’s Moon’ cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1710.’ 

On Halloween night, Jupiter will appear in the southwest and Mars will shine brightly in the east-southeast.

However, at 2am ET we ‘fall back’ one hour to 1am ET -but the good news is, you will have an extra hour of sleep. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

Continue Reading

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Blue Moon: Rare lunar phenomenon to be seen worldwide on Halloween

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blue moon rare lunar phenomenon to be seen worldwide on halloween

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is set to rise on the same day. 

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET.

Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1.

The cosmic display happens seven times every 19 years, which means the world will not see the next one on October 31 until 2039.

However, this is the first time a Blue Moon has appeared across the world on Halloween since World War II.

Scroll down for video 

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

It should make for a spectacular show on Halloween that has not happened since 1944.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia.

The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine.

This issue published an an article called Once in a Blue Moon by James Hugh Pruett, who referred to the 1937 Maine Farmer’s Almanac, but with a simpler definition.

‘Seven times in 19 years there were – and still are – 13 full moons in a year,’ he wrote.

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

‘This gives 11 months with one full moon each and one with two.’

‘This second in a month, so I interpret it, was called Blue Moon.’

A moon can turn blue, but the signing is very rare.

NASA shares that this is also deemed the Hunter’s Moon, the full moon that follows the Harvest Moon that appeared on October 1. 

‘According to the Farmer’s Almanac, with the leaves falling and the deer fattened, this was the time to hunt. Since the harvesters had reaped the fields, hunters could easily see the animals that have come out to glean (and the foxes that have come out to prey on them),’ reads NASA’s statement.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia 

‘The earliest use of the term ‘Hunter’s Moon’ cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1710.’ 

On Halloween night, Jupiter will appear in the southwest and Mars will shine brightly in the east-southeast.

However, at 2am ET we ‘fall back’ one hour to 1am ET -but the good news is, you will have an extra hour of sleep. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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