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Antiques: Roman gold coin commemorating the assassination of Caesar sells for a record £3.24 MILLION

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antiques roman gold coin commemorating the assassination of caesar sells for a record 3 24 million

A rare gold coin which commemorates the assassination of the Roman general Julius Caesar sold at auction for a record £3.24 million — including premium — yesterday.

Over two millennia old, the token is one of three of the same design known to have been cast in gold, making it the ‘holy grail’ for ancient coin collectors, experts said.

Previously held in a private collection in Europe, the mint-condition gold coin was sold at auction by London-based Roma Numismatics on October 29, 2020.

The name of the winning bidder has not been revealed by the auctioneers. 

The minting of the coin has been described as a ‘naked and shameless celebration’ of Caesar’s murder two years previously in 44 BC.

The assassination was prompted by concern among the Roman senate that Caesar — having recently been named ‘dictator in perpetuity’ — would name himself king.  

Fear of this tyranny fostered a conspiracy of 60 senators who ended up stabbing the statesman 23 times, according to history’s first recorded autopsy.

Caesar had, however, been popular with the lower and middle classes — and the uproar in the wake of his assassination helped set in motion the fall of the Republic.

A rare gold coin which commemorates the assassination of the Roman general Julius Caesar (pictured) sold at auction for a record £3.24 million yesterday

A rare gold coin which commemorates the assassination of the Roman general Julius Caesar (pictured) sold at auction for a record £3.24 million yesterday

 A rare gold coin which commemorates the assassination of the Roman general Julius Caesar (pictured) sold at auction for a record £3.24 million yesterday

‘I’m not surprised it set a world record as the most valuable ancient coin ever sold,’ said Mark Salzberg, the chairman of the Numismatic Guaranty Corporation, which confirmed the authenticity of the coin.

‘It’s a masterpiece of artistry and rarity, still in mint condition after 2,000 years, and only the third known example made in gold. Many of us believed it would sell for millions, and it did,’ he added.

The coin ‘was made in 42 BC, two years after the famous assassination,’ Mr Salzberg told Fox News back in October.

‘The front has a portrait of Marcus Junius Brutus — one of Caesar’s assassins — and the other side dramatically has two daggers and the words EID MAR, a Latin abbreviation for Ides of March,’ he added.

It also features a ‘cap of liberty’, signifying the motivations behind the murder — and on the other face, the date of the deed. 

The item, Mr Salzberg explained, is ‘one of the most important and valuable coins of the ancient world.’

Nearly 100 of such ‘Ides of March’ coins are known, according to the Numismatic Guaranty Corporation — however, most are cast in silver, and even these are considered essentially unobtainable by aficionados.

Only two others in gold are known to exist — one of which is on display in the British Museum, while the other resides in the permanent collection of the Deutsche Bundesbank, the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany.

‘There were rumours of a third example and Numismatic Guaranty Corporation authenticators were excited when this coin was submitted at our London office and sent for evaluation at our headquarters in Sarasota, Florida,’ said Mr Salzberg.

‘The coin is only about the size of modern United States five-cent and United Kingdom five-pence denomination coins, but it’s an historic treasure worth far more than its weight in gold.’

'There were rumours of a third example and Numismatic Guaranty Corporation authenticators were excited when this coin was submitted at our London office and sent for evaluation at our headquarters in Sarasota, Florida,' said Mr Salzberg. 'The coin is only about the size of modern United States five-cent and United Kingdom five-pence denomination coins, but it’s an historic treasure worth far more than its weight in gold'

'There were rumours of a third example and Numismatic Guaranty Corporation authenticators were excited when this coin was submitted at our London office and sent for evaluation at our headquarters in Sarasota, Florida,' said Mr Salzberg. 'The coin is only about the size of modern United States five-cent and United Kingdom five-pence denomination coins, but it’s an historic treasure worth far more than its weight in gold'

‘There were rumours of a third example and Numismatic Guaranty Corporation authenticators were excited when this coin was submitted at our London office and sent for evaluation at our headquarters in Sarasota, Florida,’ said Mr Salzberg. ‘The coin is only about the size of modern United States five-cent and United Kingdom five-pence denomination coins, but it’s an historic treasure worth far more than its weight in gold’

The minting of the coin has been described as a 'naked and shameless celebration' of Caesar's murder two years previously in 44 BC, as depicted. The assassination was prompted by concern among the senate that Caesar — having recently been named 'dictator in perpetuity' — would name himself king. Fear of this tyranny fostered a conspiracy of 60 senators who ended up stabbing the statesman 23 times, according to history's first recorded autopsy

The minting of the coin has been described as a 'naked and shameless celebration' of Caesar's murder two years previously in 44 BC, as depicted. The assassination was prompted by concern among the senate that Caesar — having recently been named 'dictator in perpetuity' — would name himself king. Fear of this tyranny fostered a conspiracy of 60 senators who ended up stabbing the statesman 23 times, according to history's first recorded autopsy

The minting of the coin has been described as a ‘naked and shameless celebration’ of Caesar’s murder two years previously in 44 BC, as depicted. The assassination was prompted by concern among the senate that Caesar — having recently been named ‘dictator in perpetuity’ — would name himself king. Fear of this tyranny fostered a conspiracy of 60 senators who ended up stabbing the statesman 23 times, according to history’s first recorded autopsy

Roma Numismatics’ director Richard Beale said that they were ‘extremely privileged to bring this coin to auction with the invaluable assistance of Numismatic Guaranty Corporation, whose expert specialists have assisted in authenticating it.’

‘Considering the coin’s rarity, artistry and fabled place in history, I would not be surprised if it sold for several million,’ Mr Salzberg had told Fox News prior to the auction of the commemorative gold token.

The coin had been given a conservative pre-sale estimate of £500,000 — but its ultimate value at auction (with a hammer price, before fees, of £2.7 million) makes it peerless among ancient coin trades.

Among Roman coins, the previous record-holder — a bronze sestertius of the emperor Hadrian — sold for 2.3 million CHF (then around £1.7 million) in 2008.

Until yesterday, the title of most expensive coin belonged to a Greek gold stater from  the city of Panticapaeum, which sold for $3.25 million (equivalent to around £2 million) back in 2012. 

How England spent almost half a millennium under Roman rule

55BC – Julius Caesar crossed the channel with around 10,000 soldiers. They landed at a Pegwell Bay on the Isle of Thanet and were met by a force of Britons. Caesar was forced to withdraw.

54BC – Caesar crossed the channel again in his second attempt to conquer Britain. He came with with 27,000 infantry and cavalry and landed at Deal but were unopposed. They marched inland and after hard battles they defeated the Britons and key tribal leaders surrendered.

However, later that year, Caesar was forced to return to Gaul to deal with problems there and the Romans left.

54BC – 43BC – Although there were no Romans present in Britain during these years, their influence increased due to trade links.

43AD – A Roman force of 40,000 led by Aulus Plautius landed in Kent and took the south east. The emperor Claudius appointed Plautius as Governor of Britain and returned to Rome.

47AD – Londinium (London) was founded and Britain was declared part of the Roman empire. Networks of roads were built across the country.

50AD – Romans arrived in the southwest and made their mark in the form of a wooden fort on a hill near the river Exe.  A town was created at the site of the fort decades later and names Isca. 

When Romans let and Saxons ruled, all ex-Roman towns were called a ‘ceaster’. this was called ‘Exe ceaster’ and a merger of this eventually gave rise to Exeter.   

75 – 77AD – Romans defeated the last resistant tribes, making all Britain Roman. Many Britons started adopting Roman customs and law.

122AD – Emperor Hadrian ordered that a wall be built between England and Scotland to keep Scottish tribes out.

312AD – Emperor Constantine made Christianity legal throughout the Roman empire.

228AD – The Romans were being attacked by barbarian tribes and soldiers stationed in the country started to be recalled to Rome.

410AD – All Romans were recalled to Rome and Emperor Honorious told Britons they no longer had a connection to Rome.

Source: History on the net

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Best Black Friday headphones deals on Amazon

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best black friday headphones deals on amazon
36119566 0 image a 18 1606348995906

If you want to improve your music listening experience without spending a ton of money, then Black Friday is the perfect opportunity to upgrade your headphones. 

But with so many brands out there promising to make your music sound clearer, eliminate background noise and transform your hands-free calls, it can be confusing to know which headphones will suit you best.

We’ve already seen some great reductions on headphones on Amazon. So to save you time, we’ve rounded up the best deals below and explained what’s special about each.

Great bargains have never sounded so sweet.

Sony Noise Cancelling Headphones, $88 (was $199)

Not only do these headphones look super sleek and stylish and feel incredibly comfortable over your head, but they enable you to hear more detail thanks to 30mm driver units. The bigger the driver, the clearer the sound, and most in-ear buds are only able to offer 15mm.

Noise cancellation automatically senses your environment with dual noise sensor technology so you can cut out any background noises without appearing rude. And reviewers love the 35 hours of battery so that they’re not constantly having to charge them up.

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Samsung Galaxy Buds + Wireless Earbuds, $109.99, (Was $149.99)

The Samsung Galaxy Buds are ideal for phone calls on the go. A dedicated internal and two external microphones pick up your voice and isolate it from outside noises. When you’re on a call, your voice comes through richly and confidently, even in noisy locations.

Despite the fact they’re Samsung, these are compatible with both iOS and Android devices. When listening to music you can choose from isolating all distracting background noises or using the ambient aware mode to listen to music and hear things like oncoming traffic or your Starbucks order announcement.

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Mpow M30 In-Ear Bluetooth waterproof headphones, $28.03 (was $69.98)

Even at full-price the Mpow M30s are amazing value, which could be why they have more than 20,000 five-star reviews on Amazon.

They’re excellent for workouts with a nano-coating to ensure they don’t move around as you sweat and an ergonomic ear-fin to disperse pressure and ensure comfort.

‘They pair with Bluetooth very easily and sound quality is great considering the price,’ wrote one contented customer in their review. ‘They’re perfect for keeping me motivated during workouts.’

You won’t find better sweat-proof headphones for under $30.

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Skullcandy Evo Wireless Ear Buds, $39.99 (was $79.99)

The Skullcandy Evos may now be less than half-price, but they still deliver more sass and attitude than other headphones thanks to the range of colors and the skull design on the back. Nobody will mess with you when these are in your ears.

With in-built tile technology, these are almost impossible to lose despite their small size. The buds and case offer 30 hours of play time, which is impressive for earbuds. Plus, with touch control you can answer calls, skip tracks, adjust volume, activate an assistant and turn on Ambient Mode without needing to reach for your device.

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Otium Wireless Earbuds, $20.79 (was $47.99)

If you’re constantly forgetting to charge your ear-buds, you’ll appreciate the smart LED display built into this case that tells you exactly how much play time these headphones have left.

Aside from this, there aren’t any particular stand out features, but the earbuds have all the same elements as more expensive models like instant Bluetooth connectivity, an IPX8 waterproof rating and touch control, so you double-click the left button for the previous song and double-click the right button for the next song.

At the same price as a take-out burger meal for two, they’re worth trying if you don’t currently have in-ear buds.

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COWIN E7 Active Noise Cancelling Headphones, $46.99 (was $59.99)

For a truly immersive music experience, the COWIN E7s offer impeccable noise cancellation technology at a super affordable price. Plus, they’re equipped with 45mm drivers, to deliver a higher quality and crisper sound than more expensive headphones from better known brands like SONY.

Lightweight with pillowy-like softness on the headband and ear cushions, these are headphones that you could wear comfortably all day.

One happy reviewer wrote: ‘This product is on par with big brand names, and I have used several of them including Bose and Dr. Beats for over 6 months.’

CLICK TO BUY

JBL JLIVE 300 Premium True Wireless Headphones, $74.95 (was $149.95)

If you hate switching your music off but still want to chat to your friends, a unique feature of the JLIVE 300s is the TalkThru mode. 

This drops the volume of your music to barely audible levels so you can keep grooving while carrying on a conversation. You can also have Ambient Aware which enables you to hear louder music but still be aware of your environment or completely block out all noise around you.

The design is premium with a sleek charging case and ergonomic buds that stay put.

CLICK TO BUY

Jabra Elite 65T True Wireless Ear-Buds, $69.99 (was $119.99)

If you want to upgrade your working from home experience, the Jabra Elite 65T will help. Incredible four-microphone technology offers the best-in-class call performance for making and taking calls.

With up to 15 hours of battery for maximum productivity, these will last a working day and mean that you can stay connected while making coffee or taking a walk. They’re compatible with voice assistants like Alexa and Siri so you can simply speak your commands with no need to pick up or even touch your device.

CLICK TO BUY

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Black Friday deals: 41% off Beats Solo Pro headphones at Amazon

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black friday deals 41 off beats solo pro headphones at amazon

Black Friday may officially start tomorrow, but Amazon has kicked things off early with thousands of deals across the site. 

There are impressive discounts on top-rated and sought-after Shark Vacuum Cleaners as well as top-of-the-line coffee machines. And if you’re a beauty lover and don’t already own the super popular ghd Glide Hot Brush, it’s currently 24 per cent off.

If you’re shopping for the ultimate gift for music lovers or technophiles this Christmas, then Amazon has you covered. The Beats by Dre latest noise-cancelling, on-ear headphones the Beats Solo Pro, have entered the Black Friday sale. And it’s worth listening up. 

The highly-sought-after Beats Solo Pro headphones have been reduced down from £269 to £159 – that’s a huge saving of £110. 

Beats latest noise-cancelling on-ear headphones the Beats Solo Pro are now 41 per cent off in Amazon's Black Friday sale

Beats latest noise-cancelling on-ear headphones the Beats Solo Pro are now 41 per cent off in Amazon's Black Friday sale

Beats latest noise-cancelling on-ear headphones the Beats Solo Pro are now 41 per cent off in Amazon’s Black Friday sale 

The Beats Solo Pro are the latest must-have gadget from Beats by Dre. The headphones boast an impressive line-up of features that make it widely considered to set the gold-standard for on-ear headphones. 

The headphones feature two listening modes; active noise cancelling to shut out external noise and transparency mode, which lets you stay aware of your surroundings. The latter great if you need a chat with someone or don’t want to miss your stop on the bus. 

The noise-cancelling headphones are designed to sit on the ear rather than over it, which is also ideal if you don’t like in-ear pods. The ear cups are well-padded and super soft so they’ll see you through the longest of commutes or extended listening sessions. 

With close to 1,000 ratings and a near-perfect average score of 4.5 out of 5, the Beats Solo Pro have the seal of approval by Amazon shoppers. 

Customers have piled on the praise for the headphones, writing ‘outstanding performance’, ‘beautiful design’ and ‘awesome sound quality’.  

One shopper wrote a rave-review, penning: ‘These are head and shoulders above the cheaper brands you often find on here. The sound cancellation is pretty top-notch, and the headphones offer you the option to increase or reduce the cancellation. To be honest, in both settings, the cancellation is great.

‘The sound quality, in general, is also very good, as are the controls on the right earphone. Being primarily linked to Apple products thanks to BEATS being owned by Apple, the connection to Apple devices are near-instantaneous, and my iPad and iPhone give me the battery life every time I put them on.’

Immerse yourself totally in music with the noise cancelling feature and enjoy a super quick charging time (just ten minutes charge will give you three hours playback time)

Immerse yourself totally in music with the noise cancelling feature and enjoy a super quick charging time (just ten minutes charge will give you three hours playback time)

Immerse yourself totally in music with the noise cancelling feature and enjoy a super quick charging time (just ten minutes charge will give you three hours playback time)

Shoppers have expressed their delight with how comfortable the Beats Solo Pro are, even recommending them for watching Netflix and exercise.

‘Great looking, seamless connection to iPhone, noise-cancelling and transparency is great, I wear them out exercising and no issues at all. They connect and disconnect automatically when you fold them up, charge is lightning fast and battery lasts for ages. Great product.’

The Solo Pro has over 22 hours of battery life between charges when using the noise-cancelling feature, or up to 40 with the setting turned off. Either way, it’s sure to see you through your weekly commutes. Or, if you’re caught short then it takes just 10 minutes for three hours of playback time. Win win. 

The Beat Solo Pro are available in black, dark blue, ivory, light blue and red.  

MailOnline may earn commission on sales from the links on this page. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Why Covid-19 patients with diabetes or heart disease are more likely to die from coronavirus

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Cholesterol may be helping the coronavirus to infect human cells by acting as a taxi service, new lab studies reveal.

The findings may explain why people with metabolic conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, who often have elevated cholesterol levels, make up a disproportionate number of patients who develop severe Covid-19 symptoms. 

Researchers found that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, can stick to cholesterol molecules as they bind to their regular cell receptor, called SR-B1.

This helps to position the pathogen so that its spike protein can bond with the ACE2 receptor, which allows it to infect the cell. 

This graphic shows how cholesterol may be hijacked by SARS-CoV-2 to aid the infection of human cells. The virus binds to cholesterol and when cholesterol then attaches to its SR-B1 receptor on the surface of human cells, it brings the virus with it, which allows it to latch onto ACE2 allowing it to infect cells

This graphic shows how cholesterol may be hijacked by SARS-CoV-2 to aid the infection of human cells. The virus binds to cholesterol and when cholesterol then attaches to its SR-B1 receptor on the surface of human cells, it brings the virus with it, which allows it to latch onto ACE2 allowing it to infect cells

This graphic shows how cholesterol may be hijacked by SARS-CoV-2 to aid the infection of human cells. The virus binds to cholesterol and when cholesterol then attaches to its SR-B1 receptor on the surface of human cells, it brings the virus with it, which allows it to latch onto ACE2 allowing it to infect cells 

A study published in Nature Metabolism by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Military Medical Sciences looked at the role of ‘good’ cholesterol, otherwise known as high-density lipoproteins (HDL), in coronavirus infection. 

The study looked specifically at the SR-B1 receptor, which connects with cholesterol molecules and is found on cells throughout the human body, including in the lungs, where coronavirus targets.

SARS-CoV-2 cannot exploit this receptor directly, the study found, but it can take advantage of the process of cholesterol connecting to SR-B1 in order to infiltrate cells. 

The viral spike on the coronavirus — the same one which latches on to ACE2 — has two sections, dubbed subunit one and subunit 2. 

In their experiments, the Chinese scientists found subunit one can attach to cholesterol. This means when the cholesterol naturally migrates to its receptor, it brings the coronavirus to the cell surface as well.

Researchers state this ‘enhances viral uptake’ and the cholesterol receptor ‘facilitates SARS-CoV-2 entry into ACE2-expressing cells by augmenting virus attachment’. 

The coronavirus uses the ACE2 receptor to infect cells but it can also latch onto cholesterol and use this as a taxi to help it attah to ACE2 (stock)

The coronavirus uses the ACE2 receptor to infect cells but it can also latch onto cholesterol and use this as a taxi to help it attah to ACE2 (stock)

The coronavirus uses the ACE2 receptor to infect cells but it can also latch onto cholesterol and use this as a taxi to help it attah to ACE2 (stock)

What is ‘good’ cholesterol?  

‘Good’ cholesterol is otherwise known as high-density lipoproteins (HDL). 

Cholesterol is a waxy substance that’s found throughout the body and has several useful functions, including helping to build your body’s cells.

It’s carried through your bloodstream attached to proteins. These proteins are called lipoproteins.

Low-density cholesterol is what can build up and form blockage sin blood vessels, leading to strokes and heart attacks.

But high-density can get rid of these and improve health. 

In most people, high levels of high-density cholesterol is good for health. 

However, in people with metabolic conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, it is regularly seen that they too have elevated levels as the body fails to properly regulate levels. 

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The researchers then discovered that by blocking SR-B1 and neutralising it, this inhibits infection. 

They say that targeting the SR-B1 receptor could be a potential avenue for future treatments. 

‘The results of our study demonstrate that SR-B1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cellular attachment, entry and infection,’ the researchers explain in their paper.

‘Thus…  SR-B1 might represent a therapeutic target to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection.’

This would likely benefit people with specific comorbidities more than others. People with heart disease and diabetes, who are most likely to have elevated HDL levels, are among those who would benefit the most.   

‘Cardiovascular disease and diabetes are associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19,’ the researchers write. 

‘Approximately half of patients with COVID-19 have chronic underlying diseases, mainly cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes.

‘In addition, increased COVID-19 mortality has been observed in patients with obesity or diabetes.’

NHS data from April reveals almost a third (29 per cent) of coronavirus patients had heart disease and nearly a fifth (19 per cent) were diabetic.

A previous study from the NHS and Imperial College found patients with Type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to die from Covid-19 and type 1 diabetics are three and a half times more likely to die.

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