Connect with us

Technology

Children in dog owning homes have better emotional wellbeing, study shows

Published

on

children in dog owning homes have better emotional wellbeing study shows

Children from a dog-owning household show signs of better social and emotional wellbeing than children from households that don’t own a dog, research suggests.

A team of experts from the University of Western Australia studied questionnaires filled in by more than 16,40 households that included children aged two to five. 

After considering the age, biological sex, sleep habits, screen time and parental education levels, they examined the impact of a dog on young children.

Children from dog-owning homes were 23 per cent less likely to have difficulties with emotions and social interactions than children who did not own a dog.  

A team of experts from the University of Western Australia studied questionnaires filled in by more than 16,40 households that included children aged two to five. Stock image

A team of experts from the University of Western Australia studied questionnaires filled in by more than 16,40 households that included children aged two to five. Stock image

A team of experts from the University of Western Australia studied questionnaires filled in by more than 16,40 households that included children aged two to five. Stock image

The authors analysed data collected between 2015 and 2018 as part of the Play Spaces and Environments for Children’s Physical Activity (PLAYCE) study. 

Parents of children aged between two and five years completed a questionnaire assessing their child’s physical activity and social-emotional development.   

Out of the 1,646 households included in the study, 686 owned a dog.

Children from dog-owning households were 30 per cent less likely to engage in antisocial behaviours, the study authors discovered in the dataset.

They also found that 40 per ent were less likely to have problems interacting with other children, and were 34 per cent more likely to engage in considerate behaviours, such as sharing.

Associate Professor Hayley Christian, the corresponding author said it was interesting to see how much of a difference dog ownership made.

‘While we expected that dog ownership would provide some benefits for young children’s wellbeing, we were surprised that the mere presence of a family dog was associated with many positive behaviours and emotions,’ she said.

Even among dog-owning households there was a difference depending on how involved children were in looking after their pet. 

Those who joined their family on dog walks at least once per week were 36 per cent less likely to have poor social and emotional development than those who walked with their family dog less than once per week. 

Children who played with their family dog three or more times per week were 74 per cent more likely to regularly engage in considerate behaviours than those who played with their dog less than three times per week. 

Children from dog-owning homes were 23 per cent less likely to have difficulties with emotions and social interactions than children who did not own a dog. Stock image

Children from dog-owning homes were 23 per cent less likely to have difficulties with emotions and social interactions than children who did not own a dog. Stock image

Children from dog-owning homes were 23 per cent less likely to have difficulties with emotions and social interactions than children who did not own a dog. Stock image

Christian said their findings seem to suggest that dog ownership may benefit children’s development and wellbeing.

‘We speculate that this could be attributed to the attachment between children and their dogs,’ the lead author explained.

‘Stronger attachments between children and their pets may be reflected in the amount of time spent playing and walking together and this may promote social and emotional development.’

The authors caution that due to the observational nature of the study they were not able to determine the exact mechanism by which dog ownership may benefit social and emotional development in young children, or to establish cause and effect. 

They say further research should assess the potential influence of owning different types of pets or the influence that children’s attachment to their pets may have on child development over their life.

The research has been published in the journal Pediatric Research.

Powered by: Daily Mail

Continue Reading
Advertisement
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Technology

Apple takes small company to court over pear-shaped logo

Published

on

By

apple takes small company to court over pear shaped logo

Tech behemoth Apple, which is worth in excess of $1trillion, is taking a company with five employees to court over it its use of a green pear as a logo.

Apple claims the recipe app’s logo closely resembles its own fruity emblem, and it is trying to prevent the small company from being granted its own trademark. 

Prepear says it is terrifying to be embroiled in a legal battle with one of the world’s biggest, richest and most powerful companies. 

However, Prepear says it feels a ‘moral obligation’ to stand up for itself despite the financial strain the legal battle is putting on the company. 

Scroll down for video 

Prepear (logo pictured) says it is terrifying to be embroiled in a legal battle with one of the world's biggest, richest and most powerful companies.

Prepear (logo pictured) says it is terrifying to be embroiled in a legal battle with one of the world's biggest, richest and most powerful companies.

Apple (logo pictured) claims the recipe app's logo closely resembles its own fruity emblem and it is trying to prevent the small company from being granted its own trademark

Apple (logo pictured) claims the recipe app's logo closely resembles its own fruity emblem and it is trying to prevent the small company from being granted its own trademark

Apple (right, logo) is taking a recipe and meal prep app called Prepear (left, logo) to court over the company’s logo. Apple is one of the richest companies in the world and Prepear says the costs of the legal battle has forced them to lay off a member of staff 

Apple filed a notice of opposition against the meal prep company, MacRumours and iPhone in Canada first reported. 

Apple’s logo is one of the most easily recognisable in the world and the company has repeatedly defended it from being copied. 

The company claims the presence of the green pear logo could ’cause dilution of the distinctiveness’ of the Apple logo and diminish the company’s identifiability. 

Prepear says the cost of the legal proceedings has so far amounted to ‘many thousands of dollars’. It has already had to lay off a member of staff just to survive the legal onslaught.

The two logos have similarities, they are both fruit and have a leaf. But, there are clear differences as well. 

For example, as the company names would suggest, one is an apple and one is a pear. They are also different colours and the angle of the leaf is different.  

However, Apple deems this to be worthy of a lawsuit and describes Prepear’s logo as ‘a minimalistic fruit design with a right-angled leaf, which readily calls to mind Apple’s famous Apple Logo and creates a similar commercial impression’. 

Court filings reveal Apple believes the similarities of the logos overshadow the differences. 

It also says that due to the Apple logo being ‘so famous and instantly recognizable’ that this ‘[will] cause the ordinary consumer to believe the Applicant is related to, affiliated with or endorsed by Apple’.  

Prepear co-founder Russell Monson started a petition called ‘Save the Pear from Apple!’ to raise support for the small app.   

Apple CEO Tim Cook is a ‘demanding’ boss who ‘leads through interrogation’ 

Despite his friendly, gentle demeanour, Apple’s chief executive officer Tim Cook has been described as a tough leader who has been known to ‘leave his staff in tears’.

A new profile of the billionaire Apple boss describes a man who leads his staff ‘through interrogation’, according to contacts cited by the Wall Street Journal

Cook succeeded Apple co-founder Steve Jobs as CEO in 2011, six weeks before the latter’s death from cancer.

Since that time, Apple’s market value has soared from $348 billion to $1.9 trillion, but the ‘cautious and tactical’ leader has had to be ruthless behind the scenes.

Cook reached billionaire status earlier this month, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index.

<!—->Advertisement

For Prepear, the logo is a clever play on words and integrates its product into its logo. 

For Apple, it is a company that it claims offers ‘identical and/or highly related goods and services’ and therefore is a threat.

Apple is a company with its fingers in many pies – health care, social networking, mobile phone manufacturer – and it says a meal planning app would be ‘within Apple’s natural zone of expansion for Apple’s Apple Marks’.

In other words, the fact that Apple may one day branch out into recipes and meal planning is enough  justification to challenge Prepear’s use of the logo.   

Prepear co-owner Natalie Monson said on Instagram that she does not want people to stop using Apple products. 

Instead, their public pleas are the result of a sense of duty.

‘I feel a moral obligation to take a stand against Apple’s aggressive legal action against small businesses and fight for the right to keep our logo,’ she said. 

‘We are defending ourselves against Apple not only to keep our logo, but to send a message to big tech companies that bullying small businesses has consequences.’ 

MailOnline has approached Apple for comment.          

Apple CEO Tim Cook was forced to testify before the US Congress last month alongside the chief executives of Amazon, Facebook and Google, as part of an antitrust investigation into major tech companies. 

The Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS) of Russia also ruled today that Apple had breached antitrust legislation, following a complaint from cybersecurity company Kaspersky Lab.

Earlier this year, Apple was fined €25million (£21.2million/$27.4 million) for not telling customers it was deliberately slowing down older iPhones. 

The iPhone manufacture hit headlines in 2017 for not disclosing the impact the move would have to consumers and France’s watchdog has slapped the firm with a fine.

International scandal erupted erupted in December 2017 when Apple admitted its iOS update was slowing the older phones and causing diminishing battery life.

In the 2019 financial year, Apple made a total of $260.17billion (€237.42billion). The €25million fine equates to around 0.01053 per cent of this amount. 

Powered by: Daily Mail

Continue Reading

Technology

Jurassic sea creatures spent decades crossing the ocean on rafts 

Published

on

By

jurassic sea creatures spent decades crossing the ocean on rafts

Jurassic sea creatures spent decades as ‘full-time ocean sailors’, crossing the sea on driftwood ‘rafts’, a study claims. 

Analysis of these rafts show they could last for as long as 20 years – enough time for the creatures, called crinoids, to grow to maturity, scientists reveal. 

The attractive marine animals, which resemble colourful sea lilies, consist of a series of plates connected together in branches with a stem. 

For crinoids, rafts became popular locations for colonies,  as the structures were high in the water and provided a safe haven to escape predators.   

There have been around 6,000 species of crinoids, about 10 per cent of which are alive today, although they don’t tend to float on rafts. 

Crinoids fossils dating back to the Jurassic period are common in Yorkshire and around the Dorset coast, including Lyme Regis, part of the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site.

Scroll down for video 

Using a giant fossil specimen (bottom left) from Germany, researchers mapped the spatial position of crinoids (bottom right)  in one of the largest and best-preserved Early Jurassic floating wood fossils (top)

Using a giant fossil specimen (bottom left) from Germany, researchers mapped the spatial position of crinoids (bottom right)  in one of the largest and best-preserved Early Jurassic floating wood fossils (top)

Using a giant fossil specimen (bottom left) from Germany, researchers mapped the spatial position of crinoids (bottom right)  in one of the largest and best-preserved Early Jurassic floating wood fossils (top) 

‘Modern crinoids don’t typically take such journeys, but we’ve since discovered fossilised examples of groups of floating crinoids,’ wrote study author Dr Aaron W. Hunter from the University of Cambridge for The Conversation

‘However it wasn’t clear whether these were really thriving colonies living on the driftwood or just short-term passengers.

WHAT ARE CRINOIDS? 

Crinoids, a distant ancestor of today’s sea lilies.

Crinoids were abundant long ago, when they carpeted the sea floor.

These echinoderms were at their height during the Paleozoic era. 

They could be found all over the world, creating forests on the floor of the shallow seas of this time period. 

There were so many in places, that thick limestone beds were formed almost entirely from their body parts piled on top of each other. 

<!—->Advertisement

‘Now my colleagues and I have shown that such rafts could last for as long as 20 years, plenty of time for crinoids to grow to maturity and become full-time ocean sailors.’

Human understanding of crinoids dates back to the 1830s, when English palaeontologist William Buckland – known for the discovery of the Megalosaurus – collected fossils with another pioneering palaeontologist, Mary Anning.

One of their discoveries was the remains of fossilised crinoids, which are close relatives of sea urchins and starfish. 

The specimens from Lyme Regis in Dorset, dating back to the Jurassic period more than 180 million years ago, looked like polished brass because they had been fossilised with pyrite, better known as fool’s gold.

Buckland noticed that these crinoid fossils were attached to small pieces of driftwood, which had turned into coal.

‘He hypothesised that the crinoids had been attached to the driftwood while alive, and perhaps for their entire lives, possibly living suspended underneath it,’ Dr Hunter said. 

‘Buckland’s idea was initially seen as fantastical and the scientific world remained sceptical, until, that is, the discovery in the 1960s of a truly spectacular group of fossils from Holzmaden, a village not far from Stuttgart, Germany.

‘In among marine reptiles, crocodiles and ammonites, were giant colonies consisting of complete logs covered with hundreds of perfectly preserved crinoids.’ 

Floating logs that ferried rich communities of sea creatures around the oceans were able to float for decades. The picture shows a reconstruction of marine life from the Jurassic period

Floating logs that ferried rich communities of sea creatures around the oceans were able to float for decades. The picture shows a reconstruction of marine life from the Jurassic period

Floating logs that ferried rich communities of sea creatures around the oceans were able to float for decades. The picture shows a reconstruction of marine life from the Jurassic period

In Jurassic times, Holzmaden had been a seabed that was uninhabitable due to low oxygen levels and the crinoids would ‘have clung for life’ to logs as there was no seabed for them to live on.

Scientists have been undecided as to whether the rafts, which feature preserved crinoid colonies, survived long enough for crinoids to grow to maturity, which can take up to 10 years.   

Dr Hunter and his team studied the ancient wood rafts, taken from multiple German museums and collections, including Geoscience Centre of the University of Göttingen and the Geological Institute, University of Tübingen.  

‘We established that the way to understand how long the colony could have lasted was to develop a “diffusion model”,’ Dr Hunter said. 

‘This estimated how long it would take before the log would become saturated with water and fail.’ 

As the wood in crinoid raft fossils hasn’t been preserved well enough to reveal what species it is from, the raft in the model was represented with a composite of trees known to exist in the Jurassic period, such as conifers, cycads and ginkgo trees. 

The analyses revealed that crinoid colonies could have existed for more than 10 years, even up to 20 years, before it started to break, exceeding the life expectancy of modern documented raft systems.

‘There is evidence from museum collections of fragments of wood with entire, fully grown crinoids attached to them that could only have resulted from this kind of collapse,’ Hunter said. 

Reconstruction of the crinoid colony based on the a giant fossil specimen from Germany. It shows the crinoids on the right hand side of the long log that makes up the raft community

Reconstruction of the crinoid colony based on the a giant fossil specimen from Germany. It shows the crinoids on the right hand side of the long log that makes up the raft community

Reconstruction of the crinoid colony based on the a giant fossil specimen from Germany. It shows the crinoids on the right hand side of the long log that makes up the raft community 

The crinoids preferred to attach themselves to one end of the log structure, just like a sea captain at the helm. 

This pattern resembles that of other modern rafting species such as goose barnacles, which tend to inhabit the area at the back of a raft where there is least resistance.

Amazingly, this could help reveal to researchers the direction of travel of the colony across the ocean.       

Other researchers had also proposed that any floating crinoid colony would have grown until the population became too heavy for the wood raft to support it, at which point the log would have sunk to the oxygen-free seafloor where the crinoids would then have become fossilised. 

‘However, research on living crinoid populations off the coast of Japan revealed that the animals would be too lightweight, even in large mature colonies, to cause a log to become overburdened and sink,’ Dr Hunter said.      

The study has been published in Royal Society Open Science.  

Powered by: Daily Mail

Continue Reading

Technology

Arctic sea ice could completely VANISH by 2035

Published

on

By

arctic sea ice could completely vanish by 2035

Arctic sea ice could be non-existent by 2035, a damning study warns. 

Academics utilised a climate modelling tool created by the Met Office to find out how the Arctic responded during a period of warming 127,000 years ago.

These historical results were then use to create predictions of the future and reveal it is likely there will be no sea ice in the Arctic in 15 years’ time. 

The culprit is strong springtime sunshine which creates pools of water known as ‘melt ponds’ that soak up heat from the sun and then contribute to warming.  

Scroll down for video 

Arctic sea ice is rapidly in decline due to global warming and a study predicts it will be completely gone by 2035 (stock)

Arctic sea ice is rapidly in decline due to global warming and a study predicts it will be completely gone by 2035 (stock)

Arctic sea ice is rapidly in decline due to global warming and a study predicts it will be completely gone by 2035 (stock)

Arctic sea ice plays an essential role in the world’s ecosystems and its melting will not only contribute to surging sea levels but render many species homeless. 

Polar bears, for example, are utterly reliant on Arctic sea ice to live as they use the ice to stalk and hunt prey. 

A recent study found most polar bear populations are at risk of dying out by 2100 because of a loss of sea ice. 

This timeline is likely to be accelerated should the new prediction of 2035 prove accurate.  

Researchers from the University of Cambridge and the British Antarctic Survey worked with the Met Office on the latest study. 

The culprit fr the demise of sea ice is believed to be strong springtime sunshine which creates pools of water known as 'melt ponds' that soak up heat from the sun and then contribute to warming

The culprit fr the demise of sea ice is believed to be strong springtime sunshine which creates pools of water known as 'melt ponds' that soak up heat from the sun and then contribute to warming

The culprit fr the demise of sea ice is believed to be strong springtime sunshine which creates pools of water known as ‘melt ponds’ that soak up heat from the sun and then contribute to warming

They found that during the warm interglacial period around 127,000 years ago, intense springtime sunshine created pools of water as ice melted.  

These meltwater pools cause more ice to melt as they do not reflect as much sunlight as intact ice. 

Instead, more of the sun’s rays and energy are absorbed by the water, warming more ice, and contributing to a phenomenon known as Arctic amplification.  

This was deemed to be a major factor in the sea ice melt more than 100,000 years ago, and a similar preponderance of meltwater pools has been spotted today in satellite imagery. 

How ‘Arctic amplification’ causes severe polar warming  

Scientists have long expected that shrinking Arctic sea ice cover will lead to strong warming of the Arctic air. 

Sea ice helps to keep the Arctic atmosphere cold as its whiteness reflects much of the sun’s rays. 

It also physically insulates the land beneath it.  

With less sea ice more dark open water is exposed, which readily absorbs the Sun’s energy in summer, heating the ocean and leading to even more melt. 

With less sea ice there is also less insulation, so that heat from the ocean escapes to warm the atmosphere in the autumn and winter. 

This leads to a runaway train effect which results in soaring temperatures well above the global average.  

<!—->Advertisement

September is the month where sea ice is always at its lowest level, following months of summer temperatures.  

Satellite records show that it is shrinking by about 13 per cent every decade, with around half of all Arctic sea ice disappearing since the 1980s. 

While almost all experts agree that Arctic sea ice will be gone by 2050, previous predictions have proved wildly inaccurate. 

Some estimates incorrectly claimed that Arctic sea ice would already have vanished. 

Joint lead author Dr Maria Vittoria Guarino, Earth System Modeller at British Antarctic Survey (BAS), says: ‘High temperatures in the Arctic have puzzled scientists for decades.

‘Unravelling this mystery was technically and scientifically challenging. 

‘For the first time, we can begin to see how the Arctic became sea ice-free during the last interglacial. 

‘The advances made in climate modelling means that we can create a more accurate simulation of the Earth’s past climate, which, in turn gives us greater confidence in model predictions for the future.’

Dr Louise Sime, the group head of the Palaeoclimate group and joint lead author at BAS, says: ‘We know the Arctic is undergoing significant changes as our planet warms. 

‘By understanding what happened during Earth’s last warm period we are in a better position to understand what will happen in the future. 

‘The prospect of loss of sea-ice by 2035 should really be focussing all our minds on achieving a low-carbon world as soon as humanly feasible.’

The research has been published in the journal Nature Climate Change.  

Powered by: Daily Mail

Continue Reading

Trending

Copyright © 2020 DiazHub.