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Diet: Biscuits and ice cream sweetened with FRUCTOSE may make people more aggressive and hyperactive

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diet biscuits and ice cream sweetened with fructose may make people more aggressive and hyperactive

Hyperactive disorders could be rooted in an human foraging instinct triggered by eating fructose-loaded foods like biscuits and ice cream, a study has suggested.

University of Colorado researchers have argued that low levels of fructose trigger a pathway that promotes foraging and the storage of energy as fat.

However, in excessive amounts, the same pathway becomes hyperactive — leading to cravings, impulsivity and aggression that increases the risk of behavioural issues.

These include ADHD, manic depression and bipolar disorder, the team said. 

Fructose — or fruit sugar — is found naturally in many plants and honey, but has become more common in modern diets through refined sugar and corn syrup.

Food and drinks containing high levels of fructose today include ice cream, cookies, cakes, apples, grapes, fruit juices, peas, sugary beverages and fruit yoghurts.

In fact, it is estimated that our fructose intake has increased 40-fold since the 18th century — potentially also explaining modern incidences of diabetes and obesity. 

While a small amount of sugar daily is fine, according to the World Health Organisation, most people in the UK still consumer too much.

This motivated the introduction of the so-called ‘sugar tax’ on soft drinks, which came into force in April 2018. 

Hyperactive disorders could be rooted in an human foraging instinct triggered by eating fructose-loaded foods like biscuits and ice cream, pictured, a study has suggested

Hyperactive disorders could be rooted in an human foraging instinct triggered by eating fructose-loaded foods like biscuits and ice cream, pictured, a study has suggested

‘Behavioral Disorders are common and are associated with obesity and western diet,’ wrote paper author Richard Johnson of the University of Colorado and colleagues.

‘Excessive intake of fructose in the form of high fructose corn syrup and refined sugars may largely contribute to these conditions.’

‘Identification of fructose as a risk factor does not negate the importance of genetic, familial, physical, emotional and environmental factors that shape mental health.’

However, he added, ‘we propose that excessive intake of fructose present in refined sugars and high fructose corn syrup may have a contributory role in the pathogenesis of these conditions.’

‘We do not blame aggressive behaviour on sugar, but rather note it may be one contributor.’ 

In their paper, the team reviewed previous studies into fructose and its impact on the human body to develop their case.

‘Fructose, by lowering energy in cells, triggers a foraging response similar to what occurs in starvation,’ the researchers explained.

‘This foraging response stimulates risk taking, impulsivity, novelty seeking, rapid decision making, and aggressiveness to aid the securing of food as a survival response,’ they added.

‘While the fructose pathway was meant to aid survival, fructose intake has skyrocketed during the last century and may be in overdrive due to the high amounts of sugar that are in the current Western diet.’ 

‘Unfortunately, overactivation of this process from excess sugar intake may cause impulsive behaviour that could range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, to bipolar disorder or even aggression.’

‘One study, for example, reported subjects who scored higher on ADHD traits tended to also show more exploratory behaviour, consistent with the idea ADHD may reflect a type of foraging response,’ Professor Johnson said.

University of Colorado researchers from the have argued that low levels of fructose trigger a pathway that promotes foraging (illustrated, left) and the storage of energy as fat. However, in excessive amounts, the same pathway becomes hyperactive — leading to cravings, impulsivity and aggression that increases the risk of behavioural issues

University of Colorado researchers from the have argued that low levels of fructose trigger a pathway that promotes foraging (illustrated, left) and the storage of energy as fat. However, in excessive amounts, the same pathway becomes hyperactive — leading to cravings, impulsivity and aggression that increases the risk of behavioural issues

Some experts, however, have met the study’s findings with scepticism.

‘This is an elegant and biologically plausible model grounded in sophisticated bioecological thinking,’ developmental psychologist Edmund Sonuga-Barke of King’s College London told the Times.

‘Unfortunately, the notion that there is a consistent link between sugar consumption levels and ADHD in humans was largely debunked decades ago,’ he added.

The full findings of the study were published in the journal Evolution and Human Behavior.

ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a behavioural condition defined by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.

It affects around five per cent of children in the US. Some 3.6 per cent of boys and 0.85 per cent of girls suffer in the UK.

Symptoms typically appear at an early age and become more noticeable as a child grows. These can also include:

  • Constant fidgeting
  • Poor concentration
  • Excessive movement or talking
  • Acting without thinking
  • Little or no sense of danger
  • Careless mistakes
  • Forgetfulness
  • Difficulty organising tasks
  • Inability to listen or carry out instructions

Most cases are diagnosed between six and 12 years old. Adults can also suffer, but there is less research into this.

ADHD’s exact cause is unclear but is thought to involve genetic mutations that affect a person’s brain function and structure.

Premature babies and those with epilepsy or brain damage are more at risk.

ADHD is also linked to anxiety, depression, insomnia, Tourette’s and epilepsy.

There is no cure.

A combination of medication and therapy is usually recommended to relieve symptoms and make day-to-day life easier.

Source: NHS Choices

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Covid crisis has caused anger, arguments and confrontations

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covid crisis has caused anger arguments and confrontations

Covid-19 has caused anger, arguments and confrontations among family and friends in the UK, King’s College London researchers have revealed.  

One in 12 Brits are no longer on speaking terms with friends or family due to their heated disagreements during lockdown, their study found. 

Those who get information on Covid-19 from WhatsApp, Twitter, YouTube or Facebook are also four or more times as likely to say they’re no longer on speaking terms with someone close.  

Younger people and those who may face greater financial difficulties due to the pandemic were more likely to have experienced anger or have been involved in confrontations. 

People who believe in a conspiracy theory about face masks – that the government only wants us to wear them ‘as a way of controlling us’ – have also confronted others for sticking to the Covid rules too closely. 

Differences in how risky coronavirus is perceived seem to have been a general source of tension this year, the experts behind the study say. 

More than half the population (53 per cent) say they’ve felt angry with other people they know because of their behaviour in relation to the coronavirus pandemic

More than half the population (53 per cent) say they’ve felt angry with other people they know because of their behaviour in relation to the coronavirus pandemic

More than half the population (53 per cent) say they’ve felt angry with other people they know because of their behaviour in relation to the coronavirus pandemic

‘Covid-19 has caused – or revealed – tension within the population,’ said Dr James Rubin at King’s College London.  

‘People who think coronavirus poses a greater risk to themselves and to other people in the UK were more likely to have been angry with others’ behaviour during the pandemic.  

‘People who reported feeling more anxious and depressed than normal and who found the pandemic stressful were also more likely to have experienced anger. 

‘Providing support to people who experience distress because of the pandemic may not only impact positively on wellbeing, but may also help mitigate against flashpoints forming.’     

King’s College London and research firm Ipsos MORI interviewed 2,237 UK residents aged between 16 and 75 online from July 17 to 20 this year. 

More than half of respondents – 53 per cent – said they’ve felt angry with other people they know because of their behaviour in relation to the coronavirus pandemic.  

53 per cent – said they've felt angry with other people they know because of their behaviour in relation to the coronavirus pandemic

53 per cent – said they've felt angry with other people they know because of their behaviour in relation to the coronavirus pandemic

53 per cent – said they’ve felt angry with other people they know because of their behaviour in relation to the coronavirus pandemic 

23 per cent, meanwhile, revealed they’ve had arguments with friends or family about how to behave during the pandemic. 

The likelihood of having had such arguments was found to decline with age, however.

36 per cent of 16 to 34-year-olds said they’d had these types of arguments, compared with 24 per cent of 35 to 54-year-olds.

And in all 8 per cent – around one in 12 – said they’re no longer speaking to a friend or family member because of Covid-related disagreements.  

Belief in the conspiracy theory that the government only wants us to wear face masks as a way of controlling us is also associated with confronting someone for sticking to the rules too closely

Belief in the conspiracy theory that the government only wants us to wear face masks as a way of controlling us is also associated with confronting someone for sticking to the rules too closely

Belief in the conspiracy theory that the government only wants us to wear face masks as a way of controlling us is also associated with confronting someone for sticking to the rules too closely 

The report also found that nearly a fifth of us – 18 per cent – confronted someone for not staying a sufficient distance from others or for being in too large a group during the government’s stringent social distancing measures. 

In all, 8 per cent say they’ve confronted someone for not wearing a face mask, while 5 per cent said they’ve reported someone to the authorities for not doing so. 

Another 8 per cent said they’ve confronted someone for following the recommended measures too carefully. 

Researchers said we should all group together and show solidarity with friends and family as we find ourselves in the thick of a second wave.  

‘Even though lockdown measures were eased over the summer, many people were still finding it stressful, and felt it was having a negative impact on their mental wellbeing,’ said Kelly Beaver at Ipsos MORI.

‘We shouldn’t forget about people’s emotional wellbeing – particularly for the most vulnerable – in the wider recovery, as well as the economic and health impacts.  

While Covid-19 has been a source of anger and disputes for many, there are signs that the pandemic has at the same time brought some people together.

More than a third – 37 per cent – said they feel closer to their neighbours or local community than they did before the crisis began. 

‘The fact that just over one in three say they feel a closer connection to their local community than they did before means there is something to build on,’ said Beaver.

The study has been published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

TWO THIRDS OF BRITS ARE LONELY IN LOCKDOWN – BUT MANY FEEL TOO AWKWARD TO RECONNECT 

Two thirds of Brits are feeling lonely during coronavirus lockdown, prompting many of us to reach out to old friends if we can overcome the awkwardness, a new report from Snapchat claims.   

The social media platform’s second annual Friendship Report into the nature of friendship found that 68 per cent of Britons now experience loneliness, up from 61 per cent pre-pandemic.

When asked to think about the effects of Covid-19 on their friendships, 48 per cent say being unable to see their friends has made them feel lonelier. 

But 41 per cent of Brits say friendships are more important to them now, and 44 per cent are reaching out to friends that they haven’t spoken to in a while.

However, Brits ‘fear awkward pauses and failed connections’ so much that we forego the opportunity to start a friendship, deepen a relationship or reconnect with old mates. 

‘While Covid-19’s challenges have changed how we maintain our friendships, the pandemic has also made some of us more generous with our newfound time,’ said Snapchat in a blog post

‘Visual communication is great for friendships, with memories and images of your bond striking an especially powerful note.’  

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NASA’s Perseverance rover hits the halfway mark of its 314 million mile journey to Mars

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nasas perseverance rover hits the halfway mark of its 314 million mile journey to mars

NASA announced its Perseverance rover is halfway through its journey to Mars.

The vehicle launched atop a United Launch Alliances Atlas V rocket at 7:50am ET on July 30 and has just logged 146.3 million miles.

This is exactly the same difference the spacecraft has to travel before it reaches the Red Planet’s atmosphere, which NASA says will hit like an 11,900 mph freight t rain of February 18, 2021.

Once Perseverance lands on Mars, it will trek to the base of an 820-foot-deep crater called Jezero, a former lake which was home to water 3.5 billion years ago.

It will then drill into dusty surface and collect geological specimens that will be cached across the planet and retrieved by a follow up mission around 2031.

Julie Kangas, a navigator working on the Perseverance rover mission at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, said: ‘While I don’t think there will be cake, especially since most of us are working from home, it’s still a pretty neat milestone.’

‘Next stop, Jezero Crater.’

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NASA announced its Perseverance rover is halfway through its journey to Mars. The vehicle launched atop a United Launch Alliances Atlas V rocket at 7:50am ET on July 30 and has just logged 146.3 million miles

NASA announced its Perseverance rover is halfway through its journey to Mars. The vehicle launched atop a United Launch Alliances Atlas V rocket at 7:50am ET on July 30 and has just logged 146.3 million miles

NASA announced its Perseverance rover is halfway through its journey to Mars. The vehicle launched atop a United Launch Alliances Atlas V rocket at 7:50am ET on July 30 and has just logged 146.3 million miles

Perseverance’s path to Mars follows a curved trajectory, as the trip from Earth to the planet is not an arrow-straight path that is due to the sun’s gravitational influence.

‘Although we’re halfway into the distance we need to travel to Mars, the rover is not halfway between the two worlds,’ Kangas explained. ‘In straight-line distance, Earth is 26.6 million miles behind Perseverance and Mars is 17.9 million miles in front.’

The six-wheeled vehicle, which is the same size as a large car, is also accompanied by an autonomous four pound helicopter called Ingenuity which will study Mars’s atmosphere.

The rover stands seven feet tall, is nine feet wide, weighs 2,260 pounds and relies on Curiosity’s blueprint but has been tailored to be adept at collecting geological samples.

Perseverance's path to Mars follows a curved trajectory, as the trip from Earth to the planet is not an arrow-straight path that is due to the sun's gravitational influence

Perseverance's path to Mars follows a curved trajectory, as the trip from Earth to the planet is not an arrow-straight path that is due to the sun's gravitational influence

Perseverance’s path to Mars follows a curved trajectory, as the trip from Earth to the planet is not an arrow-straight path that is due to the sun’s gravitational influence

It is powered by a nuclear battery which consists of 10.6 pounds of plutonium in a container roughly the size of a bucket.

The plutonium provides 2,000 watts of thermal power and will last for around 14 years.

Perseverance will hunt for ‘biosignatures’ of past microbial life and the rock samples will be picked up by another mission in 2026.

The rover will drill into the dusty surface and gather material into titanium, germ free tubes that will be placed in the vehicle’s belly – there are a total of 43 tubes to fill.

The six-wheeled vehicle, which is the same size as a large car, is also accompanied by an autonomous four pound helicopter called Ingenuity which will study Mars's atmosphere

The six-wheeled vehicle, which is the same size as a large car, is also accompanied by an autonomous four pound helicopter called Ingenuity which will study Mars's atmosphere

The six-wheeled vehicle, which is the same size as a large car, is also accompanied by an autonomous four pound helicopter called Ingenuity which will study Mars’s atmosphere

NASA aims to gather at least 20 samples with a variety of material that can be brought back to Earth for further analysis.

NASA has teamed up with the European Space Agency for the follow up mission that would send two or more spacecraft in 2026.

‘In 2026, we’re going to launch a mission from Earth to Mars to go pick up those samples and bring them back to Earth,’ Bridenstine said.

‘For the first time in history, we’re doing a Mars sample return mission.’

To do this, a secondary goal of Perseverance is to investigate if materials found on Mars can be utilized to facilitate return missions.

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App pairs with an Apple Watch to alert users when touch their face to limit the spread of COVID-19

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app pairs with an apple watch to alert users when touch their face to limit the spread of covid 19

Since the start of the pandemic, public health officials have advised people to avoid touching their face – but the recommendation is easier said than done.

Now, a new app aims to drive the message home by alerting users when they touch their eyes, nose or mouth.

Called Face Touch Aware, the technology pairs with an Apple Watch and uses the device’s gyroscope to track how you move your hand.

The app alerts users with vibrations and sounds when it detects the watch moving towards their face, with the hopes they will fight the urge.

Developers hope it will help cut down the 23 times an hour the average person touches their face.

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Now, a new app aims to drive the message home by alerting users when they touch their eyes, nose or mouth. Called Face Touch Aware, the technology pairs with an Apple Watch and uses the device's gyroscope to track how you move your hand

Now, a new app aims to drive the message home by alerting users when they touch their eyes, nose or mouth. Called Face Touch Aware, the technology pairs with an Apple Watch and uses the device's gyroscope to track how you move your hand

Now, a new app aims to drive the message home by alerting users when they touch their eyes, nose or mouth. Called Face Touch Aware, the technology pairs with an Apple Watch and uses the device’s gyroscope to track how you move your hand

According to the World Health Organization, hands easily pick up viruses from various surfaces.

Once contaminated, they can transfer coronavirus or other diseases to your eyes, nose or mouth and enter your body.

People touch their faces more than three times a minute on average, according to a 2015 study in the American Journal of Infection Control.

Because most of it is unconscious, just telling people to stop usually doesn’t work.

The app alerts users when it detects the watch moving towards their face, with the hopes they will fight the urge

The app alerts users when it detects the watch moving towards their face, with the hopes they will fight the urge

The app alerts users when it detects the watch moving towards their face, with the hopes they will fight the urge

That’s where Face Touch Aware comes in.

Developed by a team of doctors and programmers in Silicon Valley, it automatically vibrates and makes a sound when it detects that you have touched your face.

Typically, the alarm won’t sound until after you’ve already touched your face, but the bigger goal is ‘to increase awareness of face-touching.’

It also won’t sound more than once every three seconds, so if you touch your face multiple times quickly it will only register once.

‘This is both an Apple Internal Software Limit… and also to avoid annoying app users with continuous beeping,’ according to a press release.

Users can adjust its sensitivity or set it to only vibrate or make a sound. 

Neuroscientist Don Vaughn, who co-created Face Touch Aware, says the app, available in the Apple App Store for $3.99, is helpful for anyone looking to reduce their chances of getting sick, period.

‘Many common diseases enter the body when we touch the eyes, nose, or mouth,’ Vaughn told The Daily Mail. ‘The app also may help people who want to prevent the acne that develops from oil on the hands coming in contact with the face.’

He added that people are ‘absolutely shocked’ by many times they unconsciously touch their face.

Developers hope it will help cut down the 23 times an hour the average person touches their face

Developers hope it will help cut down the 23 times an hour the average person touches their face

Developers hope it will help cut down the 23 times an hour the average person touches their face

Once they realize they’re thrilled to have a technological assist to break the habit, ‘which is very hard to do with willpower alone.’

Down the line, the app’s developers may expand it to detect other types of touching habits people want to break, like biting their fingernails or pulling on their hair. 

Experts have been devising different ways to get people to stop face-touching.

In March, the UK Cabinet Office’s Behavioral Insights Team suggested keeping your hands in pockets or folding your arms, and using glasses instead of contact lenses.

It also recommended friends and coworkers shout the word ‘face’ every time someone reaches toward their mug.

The website DoNotTouchYourFace.com uses webcams to track users actions and plays a loud ‘NO!’ recording whenever it detects them reaching for their face.

Free to use, it’s intended to run in the background as you go about your workday.

Separately, engineers in Seattle came up with a bracelet that buzzes gently when you go to scratch your nose, rub your eyes or wipe your lips.

The wristband, called the Immutouch, retails for $50. 

AVOID DOOR KNOBS, STOP SHAKING HANDS, AND USE A PEN TO CALL AN ELEVATOR: STEPS TO AVOIDING THE CORONAVIRUS

The coronavirus has now spread to almost 70 countries around the world and health officials are scrambling to stop people spreading the virus among themselves.

But with many patients not realizing they’re ill, and others carrying on with normal life until they are diagnosed, the fast-spreading infection is proving difficult to contain.

Avoiding an infection with the virus, which causes a disease called COVID-19, may be as simple as sticking to usual good hygiene, according to scientists.

Wash your hands properly with soap and hot water 

The World Health Organisation's hand-washing method has six distinct steps (two to seven) which involve washing different parts of the hands to get rid of as much bacteria as possible

The World Health Organisation's hand-washing method has six distinct steps (two to seven) which involve washing different parts of the hands to get rid of as much bacteria as possible

The World Health Organisation’s hand-washing method has six distinct steps (two to seven) which involve washing different parts of the hands to get rid of as much bacteria as possible

The World Health Organisation’s advice is for people to wash their hands at least five times a day with soap and water or hand sanitizer. 

Friction, experts say, is the key to scrubbing off any signs of infection. 

Proper hand-washing involves rubbing the palms together, rubbing the backs of the hands, interlocking fingers both backwards and forwards, scrubbing the thumbs and washing the fingertips. 

People should clean their hands after coughing or sneezing; when looking after ill people; before, during and after preparing food or eating; after going to the toilet; after handling animals and whenever they look dirty.

‘Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses,’ the WHO said in its official advice.   

Avoid hugs and handshakes

The French government has urged people to avoid ‘la bise’ – the traditional greeting of kissing someone on either cheek – and not to shake hands to reduce the spread of the virus.

Health minister Olivier Veran said: ‘The reduction in social contacts of a physical nature is advised. That includes the practice of the bise,’ Bloomberg reported. 

Resort to ‘air handshakes’

The handshake is becoming a taboo greeting among workers, as employees and clients fear the spread of coronavirus in the workplace.  

A motivational speaker and presentation coach has now devised the ‘air handshake’ because of the ‘unfolding coronavirus situation’.

Richard McCann hosted an event in Leeds on Saturday and later posted a video that showed him greeting a man with an air handshake.

Posting to his social media accounts, Mr McCann questioned whether was being paranoid for not shaking the hands of those attending his £300 per-ticket event.  

Richard McCann is seen above miming a handshake with an attendee at his event in Leeds

Richard McCann is seen above miming a handshake with an attendee at his event in Leeds

After the event the two left the stage without actually shaking hands in a move Mr McCann said could be due to 'paranoia'

After the event the two left the stage without actually shaking hands in a move Mr McCann said could be due to 'paranoia'

Richard McCann is seen above miming a handshake with an attendee at his event in Leeds before walking off stage 

Don’t touch doorknobs and handrails

Experts say the most common way the coronavirus is thought to spread is by people touching surfaces which have been contaminated by an infected patient.

This works by somebody who has got the disease coughing or sneezing onto their hand, then touching a surface while they have the viruses on their hands.

25423780 8066203 image a 56 1583173300795

25423780 8066203 image a 56 1583173300795

Regular and thorough hand-washing is thought to be the best protection against the virus

Günter Kampf of the University of Greifswald in Germany said disinfectants can kill the viruses but many things we touch every day on transport or in public buildings are not frequently disinfected. 

The virus can live on hard surfaces which are touched by a lot of people for hours at a time, scientists say, with one study suggesting it could last for up to nine days.

For this reason, things like door knobs, should be considered a danger zone, as well as handrails on buses or trains. 

Use a pen to push buttons instead of your fingers 

Professor Kampf said that a lift was a particularly high risk place because everybody is trapped breathing the same air and having to press the same buttons. 

A lift is a particularly high risk place because everybody is trapped breathing the same air and having to press the same buttons

A lift is a particularly high risk place because everybody is trapped breathing the same air and having to press the same buttons

A lift is a particularly high risk place because everybody is trapped breathing the same air and having to press the same buttons

One tip he saw on social media suggested pushing lift buttons, which can also harbour viruses, with a pen rather than a finger.

Be careful what you touch in public toilets

Professor Kampf said: ‘The lifts and the public toilets, these are the places where I would be very, very careful about touching any surfaces to not risk a coronavirus infection.’

Stop touching your face 

According to Alistair Miles, an Oxford University researcher, everyone should stop touching their faces.

He said in a tweet: ‘Stop touching your face. Especially stop touching your eyes, nose or mouth. This is much much harder than it sounds, and takes practice.

According to Alistair Miles, an Oxford University researcher, everyone should stop touching their faces

According to Alistair Miles, an Oxford University researcher, everyone should stop touching their faces

According to Alistair Miles, an Oxford University researcher, everyone should stop touching their faces

‘But if you start practicing now, you will quickly get a lot better at it.’ 

The viruses survive on surfaces and are picked up by the next person who touches it, who then touches their face and transfers the virus into their mouth, nose or eyes. 

From there, the virus can enter your body and can make you sick.

Avoid large gatherings

Keeping people apart is one of the main ways governments can attempt to stop the spread of the virus – what officials call ‘social distancing measures’.

In Italy, France and Switzerland, for example, public gatherings of large groups of people – such as football matches – have been cancelled or banned.

Wear gloves in public and wash hand-held objects 

Science writer Laurie Garrett, who travelled around China during the SARS outbreak in 2002/03, said her top piece of advice is to wear gloves in public.

Keep them on when using public transport or spending time in public spaces, she wrote in Foreign Policy, and when opening or closing doors.

Science writer Laurie Garrett, who travelled around China during the SARS outbreak in 2002/03, said her top piece of advice is to wear gloves in public

Science writer Laurie Garrett, who travelled around China during the SARS outbreak in 2002/03, said her top piece of advice is to wear gloves in public

Science writer Laurie Garrett, who travelled around China during the SARS outbreak in 2002/03, said her top piece of advice is to wear gloves in public

She said: ‘If it’s possible to open and close doors using your elbows or shoulders, do so. Wear gloves to turn a doorknob — or wash your hands after touching it. 

‘If anybody in your home takes sick, wash your doorknobs regularly. 

‘Similarly, be cautious with stairway banisters, desktops, cell phones, toys, laptops — any objects that are hand-held.’ 

Don’t share towels and open windows in your house 

Ms Garrett also recommends not sharing towels and opening windows at home, where possible, to ventilate the house. 

This can also be done in cars, where people are in ‘close contact’, as defined by Public Health England – within six feet of someone for 15 minutes or more.

Catch coughs and sneezes and bin tissues straight away…

People should also cough or sneeze into a tissue, which they should bin immediately afterwards, and avoid spitting in public. 

Ms Garrett also recommends not sharing towels and opening windows at home, where possible, to ventilate the house

Ms Garrett also recommends not sharing towels and opening windows at home, where possible, to ventilate the house

Ms Garrett also recommends not sharing towels and opening windows at home, where possible, to ventilate the house

… Or sneeze into your elbow 

If they don’t have a tissue at hand, sneezing or coughing into the crease of the elbow is better than doing it onto hands. 

Stand a few feet away from anyone who coughs or sneezes  

‘When someone coughs or sneezes they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain virus,’ the WHO says. 

‘If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person coughing has the disease.’

If they don't have a tissue at hand, sneezing or coughing into the crease of the elbow is better than doing it onto hands

If they don't have a tissue at hand, sneezing or coughing into the crease of the elbow is better than doing it onto hands

If they don’t have a tissue at hand, sneezing or coughing into the crease of the elbow is better than doing it onto hands

When an infected person coughs, sneezes, or simply talks, tiny droplets of moisture are expelled into the air, carrying the virus out of the body up to approximately seven feet.

Professor Wang Lin Fa, an infectious disease expert at Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore, told Straits Times: ‘You have to be very unlucky to get it from the droplets in the air.

‘It means that the person coughed directly at your face, or very near you, or if an infected person coughed in the lift about 30 seconds before you went in.’

Don’t trust face masks – they won’t stop you getting the virus 

Although people have been pictured wearing them all over the world since the outbreak began, face masks are probably not any good at protecting people from catching COVID-19.

Face masks are no good at protecting people from catching COVID-19

Face masks are no good at protecting people from catching COVID-19

Face masks are no good at protecting people from catching COVID-19

University of Reading scientist Dr Simon Clarke said individual viruses are so small they could pass through the filters on most masks people would buy from shops. Researchers tend to agree with this.

But they may reduce the risk of an infected person passing it on… 

But scientists do also say anyone who is already infected could reduce their risk of passing the virus on by wearing a mask.

They may be able to block droplets carrying the virus from being coughed out into the air around them.  

The virus infects someone by taking hold in flesh inside their airways and lungs after it is breathed in. Because of this, mucous and saliva contain the viruses and are infectious.         

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