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Homophobic men who display traits of toxic masculinity are more likely to be bullies, study finds

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homophobic men who display traits of toxic masculinity are more likely to be bullies study finds

Homophobic men who exhibit toxic masculinity traits are more likely to be bullies who are violent and carry out sexual harassment, a study has suggested.

Researchers from the US used data from 3,600 men and a new scale of harmful masculinities to explore how toxic masculinity can impact health and society.

The team found ‘macho’ men with aggressive and anti-LGBT attitudes to be not only more likely to be bullies — but also to experience depression and suicidal thoughts.

Homophobic men who exhibit toxic masculinity traits are more likely to be bullies who are violent and carry out sexual harassment, a study has suggested (stock image)

Homophobic men who exhibit toxic masculinity traits are more likely to be bullies who are violent and carry out sexual harassment, a study has suggested (stock image)

Homophobic men who exhibit toxic masculinity traits are more likely to be bullies who are violent and carry out sexual harassment, a study has suggested (stock image)

The so-called ‘Man Box Scale’ of harmful masculinities was developed by the gender equality consortium Promundo-US — and it covers such themes as acting tough, control, hyper-sexuality, physical attractiveness and rigid gender roles.

Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh used this 15-point scale in combination with data from more than 3,600 men, aged 18–30 and from across three different countries, that was gathered in 2016.

Participating men had been asked about their notions of masculinity, gender equality and their own mental health.

The team found that those men who scored higher on the Man Box scale were up to five times more likely to engage in online, physical or verbal bullying, as well as sexual harassment.

Furthermore, higher scores were seen to be associated with twice the risk of experiencing depression, or suicidal thoughts.

‘There has been a lot of discussion around harmful masculinities in the media and in the research community,’ said paper author and medical anthropologist Elizabeth Miller University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

However, she added, ‘no one has agreed on a standardised way to measure the concept.’

The ‘Man Box’ concept originated in the 1980s, when activist Paul Kivel and colleagues at the Oakland Men’s Project developed the ‘Act-Like-a-Man Box’ activity to help consider how society tells men they ought to react in various situations.

The exercise involved getting participants to think about how various traits — some of which are associated with ‘acting like a man’ and are visually grouped inside a box — impact and constrain their behaviour in a series of hypothetical scenarios.

Research has shown that boys and men — just like girls and women — are affected by societal norms around masculinity, experts said. Pictured, participants in the San Francisco Women's march last year holding a sign referencing toxic masculinity

Research has shown that boys and men — just like girls and women — are affected by societal norms around masculinity, experts said. Pictured, participants in the San Francisco Women's march last year holding a sign referencing toxic masculinity

Research has shown that boys and men — just like girls and women — are affected by societal norms around masculinity, experts said. Pictured, participants in the San Francisco Women’s march last year holding a sign referencing toxic masculinity

Recently, the issue of harmful masculinity got widespread attention in response to the 2018 American Psychological Association’s ‘Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Boys and Men’

This report presented a series of steps that health care workers should take to improve the psychological care of boys and men.

The association was reacting to growing evidence that showed men who strongly align with more harmful masculine gender norms have poorer health outcomes — including around depression and suicidal thoughts.

In addition, these men perpetrate violence against others at much higher rates.

Research has shown that boys and men — just like girls and women — are affected by societal norms and that these can have real consequences, experts said.

‘These findings highlight how detrimental harmful masculinities can be to the people who endorse them, as well as their peers, families and communities at large,’ said paper author Amber Hill, also of the University of Pittsburgh.

‘It’s important to remember that individuals of all genders are influenced and impacted by the heteronormative society that we live in.’

To help clinicians better monitor their male patients’ attitudes, the researchers developed a shorter version of the survey, below, which includes only those items seen to have the strongest associations with violence and poor mental health.

THE NEW, SHORTENED VERSION OF THE ‘MAN BOX’ SURVEY

To help clinicians better monitor their male patients’ attitudes, researchers developed a shorter version of the survey, including only those items seen to have the strongest associations with violence and poor mental health.

The five statements in this survey that men are asked to express their level of agreement with are:

  1. A man shouldn’t have to do household chores.
  2. Men should use violence to get respect if necessary.
  3. A real man should have as many sexual partners as he can.
  4. A man who talks a lot about his worries, fears and problems shouldn’t really get respect.
  5. A gay guy is not a ‘real man’.

SOURCE: University of Pittsburgh

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‘We have found a way to measure the concept of the “Man Box,”,’ said Gary Barker, president and CEO of Promundo-US.

This, he explained, ‘allows us to clearly see that when men embrace stereotypical ideas about manhood, they’re also more likely to harm the well-being of others, as well as impact their own health in adverse ways.’

‘We now have a valid tool in our pockets to help us measure progress toward changing harmful stereotypes and advancing both gender equality and healthier versions of masculinity.’

The full findings of the study were published in the journal Preventive Medicine.

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Meteor that skimmed Earth may have brought life to Venus, Harvard study suggests

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meteor that skimmed earth may have brought life to venus harvard study suggests

Traces of phosphine gas was recently detected in the clouds of Venus, which suggests it could supports life – but a new study proposes the compounds may have originated from Earth.

Harvard researchers theorize that the biosignatures gas came to Venus from meteorites that grazed our planet’s atmosphere and crashed into the distant planet.

This notion was developed from a 2017 meteor that grazed Earth’s atmosphere over Australia for 90 seconds and then headed back on its journey to deep space.

The team believes this meteor could have collected up some 10,000 microbial colonies from our world and carried it to another.

The study notes that over the last 3.7 billion years, at least 600,000 space rocks that dipped into Earth’s atmosphere have a collided with Venus.

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Traces of phosphine gas was recently detected in the clouds of Venus, which suggests it could supports life - but a new study proposes the compounds may have originated from Earth

Traces of phosphine gas was recently detected in the clouds of Venus, which suggests it could supports life – but a new study proposes the compounds may have originated from Earth 

The 2017 meteor skimmed across Earth’s atmosphere for one and a half minutes at more than 35,000 miles per hour before returning to space.

Based on its trajectory as it skimmed the atmosphere, the team estimate that the rock was around 12 inches across and likely weighed at least 132 pounds.

‘Although the abundance of terrestrial life in the upper atmosphere is unknown, these planet-grazing shepherds could have potentially been capable of transferring microbial life between the atmospheres of Earth and Venus,’ the Harvard study reads.

‘As a result, the origin of possible Venusian life may be fundamentally indistinguishable from that of terrestrial life.’

Harvard researchers theorize that the biosignatures gas came to Venus from meteorites that grazed our planet's atmosphere and crashed into the distant planet

Harvard researchers theorize that the biosignatures gas came to Venus from meteorites that grazed our planet’s atmosphere and crashed into the distant planet

Previous research determined that life is found up to an altitude of 43 miles from the surface.

Earth-grazing asteroids can dip 52 miles without experiencing significant heating – another lower would kill any life it gathered from our planet.

‘Further work is needed to investigate the existence and abundance of microbial life in the upper atmosphere,’ reads the study.

The team also notes that if a meteor coming from Earth enters the atmosphere of another planet, hitchhiking microbes could be released in clouds before the rock disintegrates in the atmosphere.

‘A future probe that could sample the habitable cloud deck of Venus will potentially enable the direct discovery of microbial life outside of Earth, the team wrote.’

‘Specifically, the capability to either directly analyze microbes in situ or to return an atmospheric sample to Earth will be critical in the design of a successful mission. Finding exactly the same genomic material and helicity on Venus and Earth would constitute a smoking gun for panspermia.’

This notion was developed from a 2017 meteor that grazed Earth's atmosphere over Australia for 90 seconds and then headed back on its journey to deep space. The team believes this meteor could have collected up some 10,000 microbial colonies from our world and carried it to another

This notion was developed from a 2017 meteor that grazed Earth’s atmosphere over Australia for 90 seconds and then headed back on its journey to deep space. The team believes this meteor could have collected up some 10,000 microbial colonies from our world and carried it to another

Researchers detected a so-called spectral signature (pictured) that is unique to phosphine ¿ furthermore were able to estimated that the gas is present in Venus' clouds in an abundance of around 20 parts-per-billion. However, they were unable to determine the exactly source of the detected trace quantities of the gas

Researchers detected a so-called spectral signature (pictured) that is unique to phosphine — furthermore were able to estimated that the gas is present in Venus’ clouds in an abundance of around 20 parts-per-billion. However, they were unable to determine the exactly source of the detected trace quantities of the gas

On September 14, researchers announced Venus has traces of the biosignatures gas.

Astronomers at Wales’ Cardiff University and colleagues observed Venus using both the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at Hawaii’s Mauna Kea Observatory and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in Chile.

They detected a so-called spectral signature that is unique to phosphine — and furthermore were able to estimated that the gas is present in Venus’ clouds in an abundance of around 20 parts-per-billion.

The team explored assorted ways that the gas could have been produced in this setting — including from sources on the surface of the planet, micrometeorites, lightning, or chemical processes happening within the clouds themselves.

However, they were unable to determine exactly what is the source of the detected trace quantities of the gas.

The researchers have cautioned that the detection of phosphine is not itself robust evidence for alien microbial life — and only indicates that potentially unknown geological or chemical processes are occurring on the planet.

Further observations and modelling will be needed, they added, to better explore the origin of the gas in the planet’s atmosphere.

KEY DISCOVERIES IN HUMANITY’S SEARCH FOR ALIEN LIFE

Discovery of pulsars

British astronomer Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell was the first person to discover a pulsar in 1967 when she spotted a radio pulsar.

Since then other types of pulsars that emit x-rays and gamma rays have also been spotted.

Pulsars are essentially rotating, highly magnatised neutron stars but when they were first discovered it was believed they could come from aliens.

‘Wow!’ radio signal

In 1977, an astronomer looking for alien life in the nigh sky above Ohio spotted a powerful radio signal so strong that he excitedly wrote ‘Wow!’ next to his data.

In 1977, an astronomer looking for alien life in the nigh sky above Ohio spotted a powerful radio signal so strong that he excitedly wrote 'Wow!' next to his data

In 1977, an astronomer looking for alien life in the nigh sky above Ohio spotted a powerful radio signal so strong that he excitedly wrote ‘Wow!’ next to his data

The 72-second blast, spotted by Dr Jerry Ehman through a radio telescope, came from Sagittarius but matched no known celestial object.

Conspiracy theorists have since claimed that the ‘Wow! signal’, which was 30 times stronger than background radiation, was a message from intelligent extraterrestrials.

Fossilised martian microbes

In 1996 Nasa and the White House made the explosive announcement that the rock contained traces of Martian bugs.

The meteorite, catalogued as Allen Hills (ALH) 84001, crashed onto the frozen wastes of Antarctica 13,000 years ago and was recovered in 1984. 

Photographs were released showing elongated segmented objects that appeared strikingly lifelike.

Photographs were released showing elongated segmented objects that appeared strikingly lifelike (pictured)

Photographs were released showing elongated segmented objects that appeared strikingly lifelike (pictured)

However, the excitement did not last long. Other scientists questioned whether the meteorite samples were contaminated. 

They also argued that heat generated when the rock was blasted into space may have created mineral structures that could be mistaken for microfossils. 

Behaviour of Tabby’s Star in 2005 

The star, otherwise known as KIC 8462852, is located 1,400 light years away and has baffled astonomers since being discovered in 2015.

It dims at a much faster rate than other stars, which some experts have suggested is a sign of aliens harnessing the energy of a star.

The star, otherwise known as KIC 8462852, is located 1,400 light years away and has baffled astonomers since being discovered in 2015 (artist's impression)

The star, otherwise known as KIC 8462852, is located 1,400 light years away and has baffled astonomers since being discovered in 2015 (artist’s impression)

Recent studies have ‘eliminated the possibility of an alien megastructure’, and instead, suggests that a ring of dust could be causing the strange signals.

Exoplanets in the Goldilocks zone in 2015 

In February this year astronomers announced they had spotted a star system with planets that could support life just 39 light years away.

Seven Earth-like planets were discovered orbiting nearby dwarf star ‘Trappist-1’, and all of them could have water at their surface, one of the key components of life.

Three of the planets have such good conditions, that scientists say life may have already evolved on them. 

Researchers claim that they will know whether or not there is life on any of the planets within a decade, and said ‘this is just the beginning.’ 

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Most Americans are recorded 238 TIMES a week by security cameras, study reveals 

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most americans are recorded 238 times a week by security cameras study reveals

The typical American is recorded by security cameras 238 times a week, according to a new report from Safety.com.

That figure includes surveillance video taken at work, on the road, in stores and in the home. 

The study found that Americans are filmed 160 times while driving, as there are about an average of 20 cameras on a span of 29 miles. 

And the average employee  has been spotted by surveillance cameras at 40 times a week.

However, for those who frequently travel or work in highly patrolled areas the number of times they are captured on film skyrockets to more than 1,000 times a week. 

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Security cameras record the average American 238 times a week, according to a new report, including 14 times a week by wireless doorbell cameras like Amazon's Ring device.

Security cameras record the average American 238 times a week, according to a new report, including 14 times a week by wireless doorbell cameras like Amazon's Ring device.

Security cameras record the average American 238 times a week, according to a new report, including 14 times a week by wireless doorbell cameras like Amazon’s Ring device.

Safety.com, an independent site that reviews safety products and technology, warns that it’s difficult to know how many traffic cameras are just passively filming or permanently storing footage.

Cameras are also frequently installed in stores, transportation hubs, nightclubs and elsewhere. 

The average employee is filmed 40 times a week at or around their job, though it can vary tremendously depending on the environment.

Retail employees might be filmed hundreds of times a week but in an office situation ‘there might be a single camera at the entrance, if at all,’ the researchers said.

The typical driver will pass more than 20 cameras every day, according to Safety.com. The site warns that it's hard to know how many traffic cameras are just passively filming or permanently storing footage

The typical driver will pass more than 20 cameras every day, according to Safety.com. The site warns that it's hard to know how many traffic cameras are just passively filming or permanently storing footage

The typical driver will pass more than 20 cameras every day, according to Safety.com. The site warns that it’s hard to know how many traffic cameras are just passively filming or permanently storing footage

‘We took this into account as best as possible to find the most accurate average.’

The team said people drastically underestimate how much they’re being recorded. A 2016 survey from the video-surveillance publication IPVM found that the majority of people assumed they were being recorded less than five times a day.

The publication put the number closer to 50, though it did not include street and traffic cameras.

The growing surveillance state has drawn concern from lawmakers and civil rights advocates alike.

By next year, there will be an estimated one billion security cameras around the globe, CNBC reports, with 10 percent to 18 percent of them in the US alone.

Sales of wireless doorbell cameras is expected to soar from 3.9 million units in 2019 to 5.6 million in 2023. A recent study showed criminals can determine if a homeowner is away just by analyzing the rate at which their camera uploaded data to the Internet

Sales of wireless doorbell cameras is expected to soar from 3.9 million units in 2019 to 5.6 million in 2023. A recent study showed criminals can determine if a homeowner is away just by analyzing the rate at which their camera uploaded data to the Internet

Sales of wireless doorbell cameras is expected to soar from 3.9 million units in 2019 to 5.6 million in 2023. A recent study showed criminals can determine if a homeowner is away just by analyzing the rate at which their camera uploaded data to the Internet

In 2019, there were 70 million security cameras in the US, or at least one for every 4.6 Americans.

That’s the second-highest ratio after China, which has a camera for every 4.1 people. 

‘We expect this number to continually increase and normalize the presence of security cameras as technology and facial recognition improves,’ Safety.com researchers said in a statement.  

Doorbell cameras are a fast-growing segment of surveillance technology, with 3.9 million in US homes owning them already, according to Statista, and 5.6 million expected to by 2023.

The average American is on film in their house or neighborhood 14 times a week. 

Not only do smart home security cameras raise privacy issues, they can actually put owners in jeopardy.

According to a recent study, criminals can determine if someone is home just by tracking data from their wireless cameras.

This was done without even watching the footage itself but by looking at the rate at which cameras uploaded data via the Internet.

Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Science and Queen Mary University of London found that future activity could be predicted based on past patterns.

‘Once considered a luxury item, these cameras are now commonplace in homes worldwide,’ said co-author Gareth Tyson, a computer science professor at Queen Mary University of London. ‘As they become more ubiquitous, it is important to continue to study their activities and potential privacy risks.’ 

 At its annual hardware event Thursday, Amazon unveiled The Ring Always Home Cam, which is stationed atop a flying drone.

Its camera streams a live view from inside in home to the user’s smartphone, based on a predetermined flight path, and can take footage from multiple viewpoints.

HOW DOES FACIAL RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY WORK?

Facial recognition software works by matching real time images to a previous photograph of a person. 

Each face has approximately 80 unique nodal points across the eyes, nose, cheeks and mouth which distinguish one person from another. 

A digital video camera measures the distance between various points on the human face, such as the width of the nose, depth of the eye sockets, distance between the eyes and shape of the jawline.

A different smart surveillance system (pictured) can scan 2 billion faces within seconds has been revealed in China. The system connects to millions of CCTV cameras and uses artificial intelligence to pick out targets. The military is working on applying a similar version of this with AI to track people across the country 

A different smart surveillance system (pictured) can scan 2 billion faces within seconds has been revealed in China. The system connects to millions of CCTV cameras and uses artificial intelligence to pick out targets. The military is working on applying a similar version of this with AI to track people across the country 

A different smart surveillance system (pictured) can scan 2 billion faces within seconds has been revealed in China. The system connects to millions of CCTV cameras and uses artificial intelligence to pick out targets. The military is working on applying a similar version of this with AI to track people across the country 

This produces a unique numerical code that can then be linked with a matching code gleaned from a previous photograph.

A facial recognition system used by officials in China connects to millions of CCTV cameras and uses artificial intelligence to pick out targets.

Experts believe that facial recognition technology will soon overtake fingerprint technology as the most effective way to identify people. 

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Facebook critics’ alternative Oversight Board to discuss moderation

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The day after Facebook announced it will launch its Oversight Board in October to determine what’s allowed on the site, critics launched their own alternative.

The Citizens, a UK nonprofit, unveiled the ‘Real Facebook Oversight Board’ on Friday to address the social media giant’s policies and practices ahead of the US presidential election.

The group warned that Facebook was already being used to suppress minority votes.

‘Its tools are being used to spread lies and to enable private militias to organize voting station protests,’ the group said in a statement on its website.

Decisions by Citizens’ panel of experts are not binding on Facebook, but the group hopes putting the platform under public scrutiny will have an impact. 

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The day after the announcement of the official Facebook Oversight Board, a UK nonprofit  unveiled 'the Real Facebook Oversight Board,'  which aims to hold the social media platform accountable for its policies and practices

The day after the announcement of the official Facebook Oversight Board, a UK nonprofit  unveiled 'the Real Facebook Oversight Board,'  which aims to hold the social media platform accountable for its policies and practices

The day after the announcement of the official Facebook Oversight Board, a UK nonprofit  unveiled ‘the Real Facebook Oversight Board,’  which aims to hold the social media platform accountable for its policies and practices

‘In 2016, we didn’t understand how Facebook was being used to subvert the presidential election. This time, there’s no excuse,’ the organization says. ‘A single, unelected man rules Facebook’s vast empire and is accountable to no one.’ 

The Citizens complain that, even if the official Facebook Oversight Board starts hearing appeals in mid-October as planned, it can take up to 90 days to reach a decision – far too late to have an impact on the US presidential race. 

‘We’re not waiting for another election to go wrong. We believe accountability in real-time is vital.’

‘Facebook is a weapon,’ Citizens founder Carole Cadwallad tweeted on Friday. ‘A private company, controlled by one man, being used to undermine democracy. We urgently need to hold it to account. Before it’s too late.’ 

UK journalist Carole Cadwalladr says she launched the Real Facebook Oversight Board to hold the platform to account as the presidential election nears. 'We know there are going to be a series of incidents leading up to the election and beyond in which Facebook is crucial,' she told NBC News

UK journalist Carole Cadwalladr says she launched the Real Facebook Oversight Board to hold the platform to account as the presidential election nears. 'We know there are going to be a series of incidents leading up to the election and beyond in which Facebook is crucial,' she told NBC News

UK journalist Carole Cadwalladr says she launched the Real Facebook Oversight Board to hold the platform to account as the presidential election nears. ‘We know there are going to be a series of incidents leading up to the election and beyond in which Facebook is crucial,’ she told NBC News

Cadwalladr, a prominent UK journalist, previously broke the story on how Cambridge Analytica used Facebook user data to target voters in the 2016 presidential election and Brexit vote.

‘We know there are going to be a series of incidents leading up to the election and beyond in which Facebook is crucial,’ she told NBC News.

She called the Real Facebook Oversight Board a ‘real-time response from an authoritative group of experts to counter the spin Facebook is putting out.’

The board is composed of some two dozen academics, politicians, civil rights advocates, and journalists, including NAACP president Derrick Johnson, MP Damian Collins former Estonian president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Algorithms of Oppression author Safiya Noble and Lincoln Project co-founder Reed Galen.

Also on the board are Yael Eisenstat, an ex- CIA officer and Facebook’s former head of election integrity operations for political ads, and Marietje Schaake, director for international policy at Stanford University’s Cyber Policy Center.

The group will hold weekly Facebook Live meetings covering everything from political ads to Facebook events encouraging militia groups to intimidate voters.

The first meeting, on October 1, will be hosted by Recode founder Kara Swisher and will focus on voter suppression and misinformation campaigns

On its website, The Citizens describes itself as a volunteer group operated by journalists, filmmakers, advertising creatives, data scientists, artists, students, lawyers and others.

Prominent members include Peabody Award-winning investigative journalist Iain McHardy Overton, Harvard professor Shoshana Zuboff, and former intelligence officer Christopher Steele, author of a controversial dossier on President Donald Trump.

Funding comes from Patreon donations, a GoFundMe campaign, an award from the Stieg Larsson foundation and the Luminate Foundation, an offshoot of the Omidyar Network, a self-styled ‘philanthropic investment firm.’ 

‘It’s good to have an alternative point of view, and we hope that the Real Facebook Oversight Board will strengthen the hand of Facebook’s actual oversight board and push them to do more,’ Martin Tisné, managing director of Luminate, told NBC News.

The news of Facebook’s ‘Supreme Court’ comes amid rising concerns about misinformation and manipulation around the US election.

The news of Facebook's 'Supreme Court' comes amid rising concerns about misinformation and manipulation around the US election

The news of Facebook's 'Supreme Court' comes amid rising concerns about misinformation and manipulation around the US election

The news of Facebook’s ‘Supreme Court’ comes amid rising concerns about misinformation and manipulation around the US election

It will be able to make binding rulings on whether posts or ads violate Facebook standards, weighing factors such as severity, scale and public discourse.

Once a decision has been made, Facebook will ‘promptly implement’ it, the company said.

‘We are currently testing the newly deployed technical systems that will allow users to appeal and the board to review cases,’ a board spokesperson said in a statement to AFP.

‘Assuming those tests go to plan, we expect to open user appeals in mid to late October. Building a process that is thorough, principled and globally effective takes time and our members have been working aggressively to launch as soon as possible.’

Members of the official Facebook Oversight Board include former U.S. federal circuit judge Michael McConnell, former Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Nobel Peace Prize laureate Tawakkol Karman, Columbia Law professor Jamal Greene and former Guardian editor-in-chief Alan Rusbridger.

Twenty members were appointed in May, though the panel is expected to grow to 40. 

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