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Hundreds of teeth found in the Sahara Desert reveal the Spinosaurus dinosaur had aquatic lifestyle

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hundreds of teeth found in the sahara desert reveal the spinosaurus dinosaur had aquatic lifestyle

A trove of more than a thousand dinosaur teeth in the Sahara Desert confirms that the largest carnivorous dinosaur on record spent most of its time in the water.

Larger than the Tyrannosaurus, the 50-foot, seven-ton Spinosaurus lived in North Africa some 95 to 100 million years ago.

With a limited fossil record to analyze, scientists have long believed it was a land dweller.

But the discovery of a Spinosaurus tail in the prehistoric Kem Kem riverbeds in Morocco, reported in April in the journal Nature, bolstered the theory that Spinosaurus was semiaquatic and used the appendage to move through the water like an oar.

Now researchers have identified hundreds of Spinosaurus teeth in the same riverbeds, confirming the giant lizard was a real-life ‘river monster.”  

According to their report, published in the journal Cretaceous Research, the massive predator was the most common dinosaur in the Kem Kem, which flowed through the Sahara 100 million years ago.

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Spinosaurus (right) faces off against a T-rex in the movie Jurassic Park III. The 50-foot, seven-ton Spinosaurus, was the largest known carnivorous dinosaur and lived in North Africa 100 million years ago

Spinosaurus (right) faces off against a T-rex in the movie Jurassic Park III. The 50-foot, seven-ton Spinosaurus, was the largest known carnivorous dinosaur and lived in North Africa 100 million years ago 

Scientists from the University of Portsmouth say the Spinosaurus teeth were easy to identify from among the 1,200 dental remains discovered in the Kem Kem.

‘They have a smooth round cross section which glints when held up to the light,’ said researcher Aaron Quigley.

Some 1,200 teeth were sorted by species and nearly half were from Spinosaurus.

‘The huge number of teeth we collected … reveals that Spinosaurus was there in huge numbers, accounting for 45 percent of the total dental remains,’ said University of Portsmouth paleobiologist David Martill.

A team from the University of Portsmouth recovered more than 1,200 dinosaur teeth from the Kem Kem riverbeds in Morocco and nearly half belonged to Spinosauruses. That abundance, researchers say, 'is a reflection of their aquatic lifestyle'

A team from the University of Portsmouth recovered more than 1,200 dinosaur teeth from the Kem Kem riverbeds in Morocco and nearly half belonged to Spinosauruses. That abundance, researchers say, ‘is a reflection of their aquatic lifestyle’

That abundance ‘is a reflection of their aquatic lifestyle,’ Martill added.

Terrestrial dinosaurs constituted less than one percent of the dental fragments at one Kem Kem site, and barely 5 percent at another, according to the report.

‘An animal living much of its life in water is much more likely to contribute teeth to the river deposit than those dinosaurs that perhaps only visited the river for drinking and feeding along its banks,’ Martill said.

A rendering of Spinosaurus hunting a group of sawfish. The discovery of a Spinosaurus tail, first reported in April, bolstered the theory the fearsome predator spent most of its time in the river

A rendering of Spinosaurus hunting a group of sawfish. The discovery of a Spinosaurus tail, first reported in April, bolstered the theory the fearsome predator spent most of its time in the river

 ‘From this research we are able to confirm this location as the place where this gigantic dinosaur not only lived but also died. The results are fully consistent with the idea of a truly water-dwelling, ‘river monster.” 

Spinosaurus was first uncovered by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer during excavations in Egypt between 1910 and 1914.

Longer than an adult Tyrannosaurus rex, it had an elongated snout atop a crocodile-like maw that bristled with conical teeth that made it easier for it to grasp prey.

Stromer named the creature Spinosaurus, or ‘spine lizard,’ after the long distinctive spines on its back.

He brought dozens of Spinosaurus fossils back to Munich’s Paleontological Museum but they were destroyed when the city was bombed by allies in World War II.

Drawings, photos, and descriptions were all that remained until recently.

How did the fearsome Spinosaurus hunt underwater?

Spinosaurus could grow up to 50 feet long and weigh up to seven tons. 

The beasts were so large and fearsome that the adults of the species had no natural predators. 

Pictured, an artist's impression from National Geographic of two Spinosaurus hunting sawfish. Adult Spinosaurus are known to reach up to 50 feet long and weight seven tons

Pictured, an artist’s impression from National Geographic of two Spinosaurus hunting sawfish. Adult Spinosaurus are known to reach up to 50 feet long and weight seven tons

It had several adaptations that allowed it to survive and hunt underwater. 

Its nostrils were far back on its head, allowing it to breath with only a small portion of its head poking above the water level. 

Its bones were extremely dense, similar to penguins, which allowed it to carefully control its position in the water, striking a careful balance between buoyancy and submersion. 

Large, flat feet that were most probably webbed allowed it to lumber across the soft land around the river banks, while locomotion in water was similar to crocodiles. 

Its flat tail moved laterally and propelled the dinosaur forward.   

It was a therepod, the same group of dinosaurs that includes Tyranosaurus rex. 

It is the only dinosaur that is known to have swum and had huge jaws packed with six inch long razor sharp teeth. 

The teeth were conical and not blade-like, which were well adapted to hold on to the slippery prey it hunted. 

Its snout is more similar to that of crocodiles than to other predatory dinosaurs. This housed sensory structures able to capture the waves produced by swimming prey.

This organ functioned like a sonar – allowing the animal to hunt even in murky waters. 

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Blue Moon: Once-in-19-years event to occur on Halloween night

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blue moon once in 19 years event to occur on halloween night

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is set to rise on the same day. 

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET.

Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1.

The cosmic display happens seven times every 19 years, which means the world will not see the next one on October 31 until 2039.

However, this is the first time a Blue Moon has appeared across the world on Halloween since World War II.

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Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

It should make for a spectacular show on Halloween that has not happened since 1944.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia.

The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine.

This issue published an an article called Once in a Blue Moon by James Hugh Pruett, who referred to the 1937 Maine Farmer’s Almanac, but with a simpler definition.

‘Seven times in 19 years there were – and still are – 13 full moons in a year,’ he wrote.

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

‘This gives 11 months with one full moon each and one with two.’

‘This second in a month, so I interpret it, was called Blue Moon.’

A moon can turn blue, but the signing is very rare.

NASA shares that this is also deemed the Hunter’s Moon, the full moon that follows the Harvest Moon that appeared on October 1. 

‘According to the Farmer’s Almanac, with the leaves falling and the deer fattened, this was the time to hunt. Since the harvesters had reaped the fields, hunters could easily see the animals that have come out to glean (and the foxes that have come out to prey on them),’ reads NASA’s statement.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia 

‘The earliest use of the term ‘Hunter’s Moon’ cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1710.’ 

On Halloween night, Jupiter will appear in the southwest and Mars will shine brightly in the east-southeast.

However, at 2am ET we ‘fall back’ one hour to 1am ET -but the good news is, you will have an extra hour of sleep. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Blue Moon: Rare lunar spectacle WORLDWIDE for first time since WWII

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blue moon rare lunar spectacle worldwide for first time since wwii

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is set to rise on the same day. 

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET.

Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1.

The cosmic display happens seven times every 19 years, which means the world will not see the next one on October 31 until 2039.

However, this is the first time a Blue Moon has appeared across the world on Halloween since World War II.

Scroll down for video 

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

It should make for a spectacular show on Halloween that has not happened since 1944.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia.

The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine.

This issue published an an article called Once in a Blue Moon by James Hugh Pruett, who referred to the 1937 Maine Farmer’s Almanac, but with a simpler definition.

‘Seven times in 19 years there were – and still are – 13 full moons in a year,’ he wrote.

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

‘This gives 11 months with one full moon each and one with two.’

‘This second in a month, so I interpret it, was called Blue Moon.’

A moon can turn blue, but the signing is very rare.

NASA shares that this is also deemed the Hunter’s Moon, the full moon that follows the Harvest Moon that appeared on October 1. 

‘According to the Farmer’s Almanac, with the leaves falling and the deer fattened, this was the time to hunt. Since the harvesters had reaped the fields, hunters could easily see the animals that have come out to glean (and the foxes that have come out to prey on them),’ reads NASA’s statement.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia 

‘The earliest use of the term ‘Hunter’s Moon’ cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1710.’ 

On Halloween night, Jupiter will appear in the southwest and Mars will shine brightly in the east-southeast.

However, at 2am ET we ‘fall back’ one hour to 1am ET -but the good news is, you will have an extra hour of sleep. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

Continue Reading

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Blue Moon: Rare lunar phenomenon to be seen worldwide on Halloween

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blue moon rare lunar phenomenon to be seen worldwide on halloween

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is set to rise on the same day. 

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET.

Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1.

The cosmic display happens seven times every 19 years, which means the world will not see the next one on October 31 until 2039.

However, this is the first time a Blue Moon has appeared across the world on Halloween since World War II.

Scroll down for video 

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 - a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

Legend has it that ghosts and spirits are more active on Halloween, but these ghoulish entities are not the only things coming out on October 31 – a rare Blue Moon is also set to rise on the same day. Pictured is a Blue Moon snapped in 2018 hanging over San Francisco, California

It should make for a spectacular show on Halloween that has not happened since 1944.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia.

The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine.

This issue published an an article called Once in a Blue Moon by James Hugh Pruett, who referred to the 1937 Maine Farmer’s Almanac, but with a simpler definition.

‘Seven times in 19 years there were – and still are – 13 full moons in a year,’ he wrote.

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth's natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

The full moon phase, which is the lunar orbs position in in orbit, begins on Saturday at 10:49am ET. Earth’s natural satellite will not shine blue, but bares the name as it is the second full moon to appear this month – the first occurs October 1

‘This gives 11 months with one full moon each and one with two.’

‘This second in a month, so I interpret it, was called Blue Moon.’

A moon can turn blue, but the signing is very rare.

NASA shares that this is also deemed the Hunter’s Moon, the full moon that follows the Harvest Moon that appeared on October 1. 

‘According to the Farmer’s Almanac, with the leaves falling and the deer fattened, this was the time to hunt. Since the harvesters had reaped the fields, hunters could easily see the animals that have come out to glean (and the foxes that have come out to prey on them),’ reads NASA’s statement.

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia

People in North and South America will have a glimpse of the Blue Moon, along with those in India, Europe and Asia. The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month comes from an article in the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. Pictured is the Blue Moon hanging over Russia 

‘The earliest use of the term ‘Hunter’s Moon’ cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1710.’ 

On Halloween night, Jupiter will appear in the southwest and Mars will shine brightly in the east-southeast.

However, at 2am ET we ‘fall back’ one hour to 1am ET -but the good news is, you will have an extra hour of sleep. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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