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New ‘super-white’ paint reflects 95.5% of light off buildings and may replace air conditioners

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new super white paint reflects 95 5 of light off buildings and may replace air conditioners

Scientists say they have created a new super-white paint that reflects 95.5 percent of the sunlight that hits it. 

The new acrylic, developed at Perdue University, remains significantly cooler than the surrounding temperature in both daytime and at night. 

The team designed the paint with calcium carbonate fillers to minimize the amount of ultraviolet light the paint absorbs, instead of standard titanium dioxide particles. 

Researchers say and could be used to keep buildings cooler naturally, helping to lessen climate change caused by air-conditioning and other cooling technology.

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A new super-white paint developed at Purdue university (right) reflects 95.5 percent of sunlight and remains cooler than the surrounding temperature both at night and when the sun is at its peak

A new super-white paint developed at Purdue university (right) reflects 95.5 percent of sunlight and remains cooler than the surrounding temperature both at night and when the sun is at its peak

A new super-white paint developed at Purdue university (right) reflects 95.5 percent of sunlight and remains cooler than the surrounding temperature both at night and when the sun is at its peak

To develop a commercially viable paint that cools passively, Xiulin Ruan, a professor at Purdue’s School of Mechanical Engineering used calcium carbonate fillers to minimize the amount of ultraviolet light the paint absorbs.

During testing, the new acrylic remained 10 degrees C below the surrounding temperature at night and at least 1.7 degrees C lower when the sun was at its peak.

Other ‘heat-rejecting’ white paints only reflect about 80 to 90 percent of visible light and can’t achieve lower-than-ambient temperatures.   

The calcium carbonate-based acrylic outperformed commercial paint when examined under infrared, according to a study published this month in Cell Reports Physical Science.  

The new acrylic could be used to keep buildings cool naturally. 'This paint may even be used to combat climate change since it rejects sunlight and radiates heat into space,' says Xiulin Ruan (left), professor at Purdue's School of Mechanical Engineering

The new acrylic could be used to keep buildings cool naturally. 'This paint may even be used to combat climate change since it rejects sunlight and radiates heat into space,' says Xiulin Ruan (left), professor at Purdue's School of Mechanical Engineering

The new acrylic could be used to keep buildings cool naturally. ‘This paint may even be used to combat climate change since it rejects sunlight and radiates heat into space,’ says Xiulin Ruan (left), professor at Purdue’s School of Mechanical Engineering

‘Our paint is compatible with the manufacturing process of commercial paint, and the cost may be comparable or even lower,’ says Ruan. ‘The key is to ensure the reliability of the paint so that it is viable in long-term outdoor applications.’

Ruan says the paint has many applications, including preventing outdoor telecommunications equipment from overheating.

‘This paint may even be used to combat climate change since it rejects sunlight and radiates heat into space,’ Ruan said in a statement.

The calcium carbonate-based acrylic outperformed other ' heat-rejecting' white paints when examined under infrared, and was the only one to achieve lower-than-ambient temperatures

The calcium carbonate-based acrylic outperformed other ' heat-rejecting' white paints when examined under infrared, and was the only one to achieve lower-than-ambient temperatures

The calcium carbonate-based acrylic outperformed other ‘ heat-rejecting’ white paints when examined under infrared, and was the only one to achieve lower-than-ambient temperatures

His team will continue testing the substance to gauge its resistance to dust, water, detergent and other substances.

Other researchers eager to claim the ‘whitest white’ have looked at polar bear fur and the wings of the Cyphochilus beetle.

Across the board, competition to create vibrant unique colors is intense.

Chemical engineer Walter Liew is serving a 15 years sentence for stealing Dupont’s recipe for an exclusive titanium white process.

T-Mobile has sued small businesses for using magenta, which it claims it has a trademark on, and art supply manufacturer Daniel Smith bought the last remaining stock of Quinacridone gold in 2001.

In 2014, artist Anish Kapoor arranged an exclusive license to use Vantablack, then considered the ‘blackest black’ paint on the market.

Other artists criticized Kapoor for monopolizing the inky hue and painter Stuart Semple developed ‘Pinkest Pink’ and ‘Blackest Black,’ welcoming anyone but Kapoor to buy them.

In 2019, researchers from MIT covered a $2 million diamond with what they claimed was the 'blackest black' known to man

In 2019, researchers from MIT covered a $2 million diamond with what they claimed was the 'blackest black' known to man

In 2019, researchers from MIT covered a $2 million diamond with what they claimed was the ‘blackest black’ known to man

‘I’ve been calling out sh—y elitist behavior of color criminals because nobody should be able to own colour!’ he told Fad magazine.

In April, Semple announced he had created ‘the whitest white’ paint, which reflects up to 99.6 percent of visible light. 

He’s still refining White 2.0, but promises he’ll make it available to anyone who’s not a ‘color criminal.’   

Last year, scientists from MIT announced they had developed the ‘blackest material ever made.’

It absorbs 99.995 percent of light, compared to Vantablack, the previous ‘blackest black,’ which absorbs 99.965 percent of light.

To demonstrate the unnamed substance’s opacity, researchers covered a $2 million diamond with it, transforming the precious gem into a flat, black void. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Pollution regulations to reduce dirty air have saved 1.5 BILLION birds in the US over 40 years

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pollution regulations to reduce dirty air have saved 1 5 billion birds in the us over 40 years

US pollution controls aren’t just good for the atmosphere, they’re saving our winged friends, too.

Ozone gasses, a leading contributor to smog, is linked tied to health problems in both humans and avians. 

A new study found that regulations intended to reduce the pollution have also slowed the decline of bird populations in the US.  

Scientists at Cornell and the University of Oregon tracked changes in bird abundance, ozone emissions and regulation status across the nation over a 15 year period.

Extrapolating their findings, they found caps on ozone emissions may have saved as many as 1.5 billion birds in the past 40 years, – equal to 20 percent of all birds in the United States today.

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A new Cornell study on EPA policies shows

A new Cornell study on EPA policies shows

A new Cornell study on EPA regulations shows efforts to curb ozone production have saved more than a billion birds in the last 40 years. The gas is not only harmful to the animals’ respiratory system, it can kill off the plants and insects they eat

Ozone occurs naturally, but automobiles and power plants have contributed to a significant increase in its production. 

While it’s necessary in the upper atmosphere to protect us from the sun’s ultraviolet rays, at ground level ozone causes smog and contributes to respiratory and cardiovascular disease, especially in the young and the elderly.

Numerous studies have connected ozone at levels currently found in many urban areas to low birth weights, asthma, and even early death.  

It’s also detrimental to bird life, especially the small migratory birds — like sparrows and finches — that make up more than three-quarters of all North American species. 

Ozone is a leading ingredient in smog and has been linked to respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease and low birth weight, among other health risks

Ozone is a leading ingredient in smog and has been linked to respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease and low birth weight, among other health risks

Ozone is a leading ingredient in smog and has been linked to respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease and low birth weight, among other health risks 

As with humans, it impacts their respiratory system — but it can also kill off the plants and insects that serve as their chief food sources.

‘Not surprisingly, birds that cannot access high-quality habitat or food resources are less likely to survive or reproduce successfully,’ said Amanda Rodewald, director of Cornell’s Center for Avian Population Studies and co-author of a new report in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

‘The good news here is that environmental policies intended to protect human health return important benefits for birds, too.’

To get an idea of how regulations have impacted this country’s winged population, Rodewald and environmental economist Ivan Rudik combined pollution data with environmental policies and bird observations from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, tracking.

A separate 2019 study by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology showed that North American bird populations have declined by nearly 3 billion birds since 1970

A separate 2019 study by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology showed that North American bird populations have declined by nearly 3 billion birds since 1970

A separate 2019 study by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology showed that North American bird populations have declined by nearly 3 billion birds since 1970

They tracked monthly changes in bird abundance, air quality, and regulation status over 15 years in more than 3,200 counties.

The team focused on the EPA’s NOx (nitrogen oxide) Budget Trading Program, a cap-and-trade initiative launched in 2003 to reduce ozone emissions from power plants and other large industrial sources during the summer months.

A separate 2019 study by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology showed that North American bird populations have declined by nearly 3 billion birds since 1970.

Without existing environmental regulations, Rodewald and Rudik say, an estimated 1.5 billion more birds would have died.

‘Our research shows that the benefits of environmental regulation have likely been underestimated,’ said Rudik. 

‘Reducing pollution has positive impacts in unexpected places and provides an additional policy lever for conservation efforts.’  

The Trump administration has been criticized for rolling back dozens of environmental regulations,

In June 2017, then-EPA administrator Scott Pruitt announced he was delaying enforcement of an Obama-era regulation governing ozone emissions, The New York Times reports.

In August of that year, one day after 16 state attorneys general filed a lawsuit claiming the agency was violating the Clean Air Act, Pruitt reversed his decision and said he would enforce the policy.

Heather McTeer Toney, a former regional EPA administrator under the Obama administration, is among a short-list of candidates being considered to lead the agency under President-elect Biden, Reuters reports. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Trove of arrows dating back 6,000 years are discovered in Norway after drastic amounts of ice melts 

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trove of arrows dating back 6000 years are discovered in norway after drastic amounts of ice melts

A veritable treasure trove of ancient artifacts has been discovered in an Norwegian ice patch that climate change has caused to melt.

Researchers found nearly 70 arrow shafts, plus shoes, textiles and reindeer bones on a mountainside in Jotunheimen, about 240 miles from Oslo.

Based on radiocarbon dating, the oldest arrows are from around 4100 BC, with the most recent dating from 1300 AD.

While the discovery confirms the region was a popular spot for reindeer hunting millennia ago, it upends conventional wisdom about how ice patches can be used to interpret the historical record.

Archaeologists had assumed the ice preserved items as they were deposited, sealing them in place and providing a timeline — with older relics on the bottom and newer ones on top.

But the different amounts of weathering on the objects, as well as their seemingly random order, counters the theory that ice patches are like photographs, presenting a preserved image of the past.

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A 1,300-year-old arrow discovered at Langfonne. A record-setting 68 arrows were found in all in the Norwegian ice patch, some with their arrowheads still attached

A 1,300-year-old arrow discovered at Langfonne. A record-setting 68 arrows were found in all in the Norwegian ice patch, some with their arrowheads still attached

A 1,300-year-old arrow discovered at Langfonne. A record-setting 68 arrows were found in all in the Norwegian ice patch, some with their arrowheads still attached

A record-setting 68 arrows were found in all, some with their arrowheads still attached.

The heads were made from a variety of materials — iron, quartzite, slate, mussel shell and even bone.

 Several still had the twine and tar used to affix them to a wooden shaft.

The biggest number of arrows dated to 700 through 750 AD, but the oldest were some 6,000 years old.

A 4,000-year-old arrowhead made from quartzite. Other arrow tips were made from slate, bone and sharpened mussel shell.

A 4,000-year-old arrowhead made from quartzite. Other arrow tips were made from slate, bone and sharpened mussel shell.

A 4,000-year-old arrowhead made from quartzite. Other arrow tips were made from slate, bone and sharpened mussel shell.

A 4,000-year-old arrow shaft found on the ice. Based on radiocarbon dating, the oldest arrows are from around 4100 BC, with the most recent dating from 1300 AD

A 4,000-year-old arrow shaft found on the ice. Based on radiocarbon dating, the oldest arrows are from around 4100 BC, with the most recent dating from 1300 AD

A 4,000-year-old arrow shaft found on the ice. Based on radiocarbon dating, the oldest arrows are from around 4100 BC, with the most recent dating from 1300 AD

An aerial photo of Langfonne's three separate main ice patches.  Because of global warming, it is now less than 30 percent of the size it was just two decades ago, according to Pilø

An aerial photo of Langfonne's three separate main ice patches.  Because of global warming, it is now less than 30 percent of the size it was just two decades ago, according to Pilø

An aerial photo of Langfonne’s three separate main ice patches.  Because of global warming, it is now less than 30 percent of the size it was just two decades ago, according to Pilø

‘This is earlier than finds from any other ice site in Northern Europe,’ according to archaeologist Lars Holger Pilø, ‘and about 800 years earlier than Ötzi,’ the 5,100-year-old ice mummy found in the Tyrolean Alps in 1991.

Other artifacts from Langfonne include a well-preserved shoe from more than 3,000 years ago and fabric Pilø says may have been used to package meat.   

The Langfonne ice patch was first uncovered in 2006, when hiker Reidar Marstein discovered a leather shoe from the early Bronze Age there and reported it to Pilø.

At the time, researchers had assumed new layers of snow added to a patch, like strata in the earth, with older layers near the core and newer layers near the surface.

Map of ice sites in Innlandet County. The Langfonne ice patch was first discovered in 2006

Map of ice sites in Innlandet County. The Langfonne ice patch was first discovered in 2006

Map of ice sites in Innlandet County. The Langfonne ice patch was first discovered in 2006

Examples of arrows found at Langfonne. Left shows the nock end of an arrow and right shows a partially preserved arrow shaft in four fragments at the bottom left of the picture

Examples of arrows found at Langfonne. Left shows the nock end of an arrow and right shows a partially preserved arrow shaft in four fragments at the bottom left of the picture

Examples of arrows found at Langfonne. Left shows the nock end of an arrow and right shows a partially preserved arrow shaft in four fragments at the bottom left of the picture

‘The idea was, ice is like a time machine. Anything that lands on it stays there and is protected,’ Pilø, a researcher with the Innlandet County Council Cultural Heritage Department, told National Geographic.

But a closer examination showed the ice melted and re-froze numerous times over the millennia, shifting the arrows around from their original locations.

In addition, if the patch was acting like a time machine, older artifacts should have been just as well preserved as newer ones.

Archaeologists taking samples and artifacts from Langfonne. Analysis of the arrows found on the site disprove the theory that ice patches present a perfectly preserved image of history 'like a time machine'

Archaeologists taking samples and artifacts from Langfonne. Analysis of the arrows found on the site disprove the theory that ice patches present a perfectly preserved image of history 'like a time machine'

Archaeologists taking samples and artifacts from Langfonne. Analysis of the arrows found on the site disprove the theory that ice patches present a perfectly preserved image of history ‘like a time machine’

Instead, the Neolithic arrows were broken and heavily weathered, suggesting they had been exposed to the elements at various times.

The 14th century arrows, though, ‘looked as though they were shot just yesterday,’ National Geographic reported. 

‘This led to a suspicion that something had happened to them while inside the ice,’ Pilø wrote in a blog post on Wednesday.

A view of Langfonne ice patch, from the top of the mountain

A view of Langfonne ice patch, from the top of the mountain

A view of Langfonne ice patch, from the top of the mountain

In a new report in the journal Holocene, Pilø says that makes it hard to glean certain information about the people who used these artifacts.

‘The ice is an artifact-preserver but it is also at the same time a destroyer of history,’ he told Nat Geo.

New discoveries may still present themselves as Langfonne, now split into three smaller patches, continues to thaw.

Its melting is part of a worldwide pattern of retreating mountain glaciers linked to global warming, Pilø wrote.

‘Langfonne has retreated dramatically in the last two decades. It is now less than 30 percent of the size it was 20 years ago. This retreat is clearly visible in the landscape.’

And the patch is only 10 percent of what it was at its height, he said, during the ‘Little Ice Age’ that took place between the 15th and 20th century.

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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When will Earth be eco-friendly? Most Americans believe the world will be greener by 2042

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when will earth be eco friendly most americans believe the world will be greener by 2042

This year may have been rough, but as 2020 comes to a close many Americans are looking forward to a better future – and a greener one.

A new survey reveals 59 percent foresee a ‘completely environmentally friendly’ Earth by year 2042, but the majority understands that it is only possible if we all work together.

The idea of going green is producing zero waste and running on renewable energy, along with swapping cars for a bicycle or walking and adopting a plant-based diet.

Among ways to create a better world, 70 percent of the respondents also believe climate change is the single biggest threat facing humanity.

A new survey reveals 59 percent foresee a ‘completely environmentally friendly' Earth by year 2042, but the majority understands that it is only possible if we all work together. The idea of going green is producing zero waste and running on renewable energy

A new survey reveals 59 percent foresee a ‘completely environmentally friendly' Earth by year 2042, but the majority understands that it is only possible if we all work together. The idea of going green is producing zero waste and running on renewable energy

A new survey reveals 59 percent foresee a ‘completely environmentally friendly’ Earth by year 2042, but the majority understands that it is only possible if we all work together. The idea of going green is producing zero waste and running on renewable energy

The study was conducted by Cool Effect, which survey 2,000 adults living in the US to understand how Americans feel about climate change and the steps they are willing to take to combat its effects, according to StudyFinds.

The top answers for what a completely environmentally friendly world was a tie of 57 percent for zero waste and using nothing but renewable energy.

Approximately 52 percent said banning single-use plastics, which is a law in eight states currently.

Nearly half of the respondents suggested people bike or walk to their destination instead of driving, while some Americans think an eco-friendly life is a more plant-based diet.

Respondents also suggested swapping cars for a bicycle or walking and adopting a plant-based diet. Among ways to create a better world, 70 percent of the respondents also believe climate change is the single biggest threat facing humanity

Respondents also suggested swapping cars for a bicycle or walking and adopting a plant-based diet. Among ways to create a better world, 70 percent of the respondents also believe climate change is the single biggest threat facing humanity

Respondents also suggested swapping cars for a bicycle or walking and adopting a plant-based diet. Among ways to create a better world, 70 percent of the respondents also believe climate change is the single biggest threat facing humanity

A finding that came out of the new survey shows that a third of those polled have actually switched careers for a more eco-friendly company and 68 percent have or are willing to pack up their lives and move to a more sustainable city

However, although these Americans are willing to fight for a greener world, the research found that many of them are not aware of their own personal carbon footprint – only 36 percent could produce an answer.

The survey also suggests that Americans tend to ignore their personal responsibility  and feel their own carbon footprint is not making an impact on the warming world.

A previous study from 2019 found that some Americans overestimate their contribution – both findings suggests they need to meet in the middle  

However, data from the United States Department of Energy shows the average American emits roughly 17 tons of carbon per year – survey respondents said it was only 11.4 tons.

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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