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People who can afford exciting experiences believe they have lived longer, study reveals 

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people who can afford exciting experiences believe they have lived longer study reveals

Studies have shown that wealthy people live longer, but new research suggests it may be their novel experiences that makes them believe they do.

A team at the Norwegian University of Science and Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience discovered a network of brain cells that expresses our sense of time within experiences and memories.

The team found that enjoyable experiences, such as vacations and hobbies, create ‘time codes’ in the brain that are more memorable and are easier to recall than events that are boring – making it seem we have been on the Earth longer.

On the other hand, their work also shows that the brain typically does not stamp events that are mundane or constantly repeated, leaving us less to look back on.

Researchers suggest that when you recall on a memory where you whisked away to a tropical island or spent an afternoon tinkering on a vintage car, life ‘feels longer in retrospect.’

The team found that enjoyable experiences, such as vacations and hobbies, create ¿time codes¿ in the brain that are more memorable and are easier to recall than events that are boring ¿ making it seem we have been on the Earth longer. When you recall on a memory where you whisked away to a tropical island or spent an afternoon tinkering on a vintage car, life ¿feels longer in retrospect'

The team found that enjoyable experiences, such as vacations and hobbies, create ¿time codes¿ in the brain that are more memorable and are easier to recall than events that are boring ¿ making it seem we have been on the Earth longer. When you recall on a memory where you whisked away to a tropical island or spent an afternoon tinkering on a vintage car, life ¿feels longer in retrospect'

The team found that enjoyable experiences, such as vacations and hobbies, create ‘time codes’ in the brain that are more memorable and are easier to recall than events that are boring – making it seem we have been on the Earth longer. When you recall on a memory where you whisked away to a tropical island or spent an afternoon tinkering on a vintage car, life ‘feels longer in retrospect’

Valtteri Arstila, a professor of philosophy at the University of Helsinki, told National Geographic: ‘I think like the main thing is that wealthy people have the option of getting rid of their daily routines.’

Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Kavli Institute for Systems found the area of the brain that creates these time codes is located in the medial entorhinal cortex.

They conducted experiments with two groups of rats while monitor this region.

In one experiment, a rat was introduced to a wide range of experiences and options for action.

A team at the Norwegian University of Science and Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience discovered a network of brain cells that expresses our sense of time within experiences and memories.

A team at the Norwegian University of Science and Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience discovered a network of brain cells that expresses our sense of time within experiences and memories.

A team at the Norwegian University of Science and Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience discovered a network of brain cells that expresses our sense of time within experiences and memories.

It was free to run around, investigate and chase bits of chocolate while visiting a series of open space environments.

PhD candidate Jørgen Sugar said: ‘’The uniqueness of the time signal during this experiment suggests that the rat had a very good record of time and temporal sequence of events throughout the two hours the experiment lasted.’

‘We were able to use the signal from the time-coding network to track exactly when in the experiment various events had occurred.’

In the second experiment, the task was more structured with a narrower range of experiences and options for action.

The rat was trained to chase after bits of chocolate while turning left or right in a figure-eight maze.

Albert Tsao with Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience said: ‘With this activity, we saw the time-coding signal change character from unique sequences in time to a repetitive and partly overlapping pattern.’

‘On the other hand, the time signal became more precise and predictable during the repetitive task. 

According to Sugar, the data shows that the brain is not willing to waste time memorizing moments that are boring.

So the rats seemed to create more memories when they were engaging in free or varied actions, rather than something that is though out and predictable, he added.

Sugar also explained to National Geographic that there are differences between how short-term memory feels in the moment.

They conducted experiments with two groups of rats while monitor this region. The rats seemed to create more memories when they were engaging in free or varied actions, rather than something that is though out and predictable

They conducted experiments with two groups of rats while monitor this region. The rats seemed to create more memories when they were engaging in free or varied actions, rather than something that is though out and predictable

They conducted experiments with two groups of rats while monitor this region. The rats seemed to create more memories when they were engaging in free or varied actions, rather than something that is though out and predictable

He gives the example of students sitting in two different lectures- one was boring and the other interesting.

The pupil in the boring discussion saw time inching by while the other thought it was flying.

When recalling both events, the boring class created fewer time codes that the brain eliminated after a period of time.

The interesting lecture was full of memories and felt longer in retrospect.

However, other experts not involved in the study are not convinced.

Adrian Bejan, a professor of thermodynamics at Duke University, said the novelty of exciting experiences will eventually wear off and the wealth do not have the power to trick time into slowing down.

Benja told National Geographic that although taking fun trips may slow time for a bit, it will lose its charm.

The rich individual will become bored at some point and want to return to the office, which will again speed up time.

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Yellowstone guide films ‘once in a lifetime’ encounter between a grizzly bear and wolf pack in

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yellowstone guide films once in a lifetime encounter between a grizzly bear and wolf pack in

A tour guide captured the moment a grizzly bear was surprised by a pack of wolves in Yellowstone National Park.

Adam Brubaker of Tied to Nature tours was taking a group through Yellowstone’s Hayden Valley on Friday when they came across the carnivorous encounter. 

At one point, the bear reared up on its hind legs to get a better look over the tall grass.

As many as ten wolves circled the grizzly and nipped at it before escorting it away from what Brubaker believes was their kill, and into the trees.

A white wolf in the pack had blood on her face, suggesting they may have been guarding a nearby meal. 

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A pack of wolves circle a grizzly encroaching on their turf in footage from Yellowstone National Park captured by Adam Brubaker of Tied to Nature tours

A pack of wolves circle a grizzly encroaching on their turf in footage from Yellowstone National Park captured by Adam Brubaker of Tied to Nature tours

At one point, the bear reared up on its hind legs to get a better look over the tall grass.

At one point, the bear reared up on its hind legs to get a better look over the tall grass.

In the video, Brubaker can be heard telling his group the bear is trying to figure out what’s going on.

‘That’s why he was standing up. It’s the same thing with people; they don’t want to be surprised by anything.’ 

On Facebook, Brubaker wrote he had ‘the awesome opportunity to share this once-in-a-lifetime wolf and grizzly sighting.’  

He later said he wasn’t sure if the wolves were trying to protect nearby cubs or a fresh kill.

‘From what I could see the pups were not with them,’ he told USA Today. ‘The white wolf has blood on her face and neck, so there could have been a carcass, but while I watched them they were not feeding on one.’

Brubaker captured the footage in Hayden Valley, one of Yellowstone’s premier wildlife viewing areas.

After closing because of the pandemic for several months, Yellowstone reopened two entrances on May 18

Grizzlies and wolves typically avoid each other, but encounters are not unheard of.

Last month, an outdoor photographer captured footage of a lone wolf at Yellowstone trying to steal some of a bear’s kill from right under its nose.

The grizzly was tucking into an elk it had buried by a river’s edge to cover the scent of the decaying carcass. 

HOW DO I STAY SAFE IN BEAR TERRITORY? 

Be alert when entering bear territory and make noise so you don't startle any bears

Be alert when entering bear territory and make noise so you don’t startle any bears 

 

  • Hike in groups of three or more
  • Carry bear spray and know how to use it 
  • Be alert and make noise
  • Stay out of areas that are closed for bear management
  • Don’t hike at dawn, dusk, or at night when grizzly bears are most active
  • If need be, turn around and go the other way to avoid interacting with a wild animal

 

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A bold gray wolf picked up on the smell and tried to steal the meat while the bear was napping. 

In the video, the wolf calmly sniffs the ground next to where the bear is lying.

The bear lets the interloper get close before it finally leaps to its feet, sending the wolf jumping backwards in fear.

The stand-off continues for almost four minutes, as the plucky wolf makes four approaches and is similarly repelled.

‘This wolf was alone and therefore not much of a threat to the massive grizzly,’ said videographer Seth Royal Kroft, who captured the incredible scene. 

 ‘It was more of a game to him to see how close the dominating bear would let him get to his kill. To my surprise, he let him get very close.’

It all seemed harmless enough but grizzlies, which can weigh up to 600lbs, are normally extremely protective of their kills and their young.

In June, a hiker from Missouri suffered minor injuries after being pawed by a mother grizzly bear protecting a cub on Fairy Fall Trail near Old Faithful.

According to park officials, the woman attempted to use bear spray during the encounter but the bear knocked her over first.

The woman received lacerations on her thigh from the bear’s claws and facial injuries when falling down.

It’s the first time this year someone has been attacked in the park.

The National Park Service advises visitors to give animals space when near a trail, boardwalk, parking lot, or in a developed area, with at least 100 yards for bears and wolves.

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Back corner of the classroom may be SAFEST spot in the room, study claims

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back corner of the classroom may be safest spot in the room study claims

The back corner of a classroom has long been the domain of mischievous children, but it may also be the safest spot in the room to avoid catching the coronavirus, a US study claims. 

Schools have been hit hard by the pandemic, with many forced to close, cancel exams and overhaul their teaching methods. 

And much research has looked at how to minimise the risk to both staff and pupils, with open windows and air conditioning hailed as effective solutions. 

New research backs this up, but also reveals that in a typical classroom the lowest concentration of coronavirus particles is often in the back corners.  

The back corner of a classroom has long been the domain of mischievous children, but it may also be the safest spot in the room to avoid catching the coronavirus, a US study claims (file photo)

The back corner of a classroom has long been the domain of mischievous children, but it may also be the safest spot in the room to avoid catching the coronavirus, a US study claims (file photo)

Researchers from the University of New Mexico say this information could allow for high-risk students to be placed in the low exposure zones. 

In the study, published today in the journal Physics of Fluids, the scientists used a computer model to see how open windows, perspex screens on each desk and air conditioning impacts the spread of aerosols and droplets. 

Khaled Talaat, co-author of the study, told MailOnline that the specific location of a room’s safe zones are dependent on its specific layout and ventilation. 

But the researchers used industry-standard air conditioning systems and rooms of ‘realistic dimensions and size’, to make the findings as wide-reaching as possible. 

Researchers from the University of New Mexico say the low concentration zones and back corners could be used to keep high-risk students away from the most danger (file photo)

Researchers from the University of New Mexico say the low concentration zones and back corners could be used to keep high-risk students away from the most danger (file photo)

‘Classrooms do exhibit some variability which can affect the quantitative findings but the overall qualitative findings should hold [true for most classrooms],’ Mr Talaat, a PhD candidate, explains.

The researchers looked at how aerosol particles spread through the air in a classroom following expulsion via talking, coughing, laughing or sneezing. 

‘Nearly 70 per cent of exhaled particles smaller than one micrometre in size exit the system when windows are open,’ Mr Talaat says.

‘And air conditioning removes up to 50 per cent of particles released during exhalation and talking, but the rest get deposited onto surfaces within the room and may reenter the air.’ 

However, while these tried and tested methods were again found to be worth employing, the team also found screens in front of desks were effective.

‘Screens don’t stop 1-micron particles directly, but they affect the local air flow field near the source, which changes the particle trajectories,’ Mr Talaat adds. 

‘Their effectiveness depends on the position of the source with respect to the air conditioning diffusers.’

Face masks make the cloud of coronavirus particles created by a cough up to 23 TIMES smaller 

Wearing a face mask reduces the size of the clouds of infectious coronavirus particles created by a cough by up to 23 times, a study has found.

Researchers from India calculated how cough clouds evolve as they spread out — and how much various forms of covering can control their spread.

The team found that a surgical facemask lowered the cloud volume by seven times compared with without — while an N95 respirator cut the volume 23-fold.

‘We found that anything that reduces the distance travelled by the cloud… should greatly reduce the region over which the droplets disperse upon coughing,’ said paper author and engineer Rajneesh Bhardwaj of the Indian Institute of Technology.

This, he added, in turn therefore greatly reduces ‘the chances of infection.’ 

Researchers found a surgical facemask lowered the cloud volume by seven times (green line) compared with no mask (red line)— while an N95 respirator cut the volume 23-fold (blue line)

Researchers found a surgical facemask lowered the cloud volume by seven times (green line) compared with no mask (red line)— while an N95 respirator cut the volume 23-fold (blue line)

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COVID-19: Cough clouds of coronavirus particles are up to 23 TIMES smaller when wearing a mask

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covid 19 cough clouds of coronavirus particles are up to 23 times smaller when wearing a mask

Wearing a face mask reduces the size of the clouds of infectious coronavirus particles created by a cough by up to 23 times, a study has found.

Researchers from India calculated how cough clouds evolve as they spread out — and how much various forms of covering can control their spread.

The team found that a surgical facemask lowered the cloud volume by seven times compared with without — while an N95 respirator cut the volume 23-fold.

Scroll down for video  

Researchers found a surgical facemask lowered the cloud volume by seven times (green line) compared with no mask (red line)— while an N95 respirator cut the volume 23-fold (blue line)

Researchers found a surgical facemask lowered the cloud volume by seven times (green line) compared with no mask (red line)— while an N95 respirator cut the volume 23-fold (blue line)

Researchers found a surgical facemask lowered the cloud volume by seven times (green line) compared with no mask (red line)— while an N95 respirator cut the volume 23-fold (blue line)

Researchers say there are certain things which can reduce the spread of cough droplets, such as wearing face masks, using handkerchiefs and coughing into one's elbow (stock)

Researchers say there are certain things which can reduce the spread of cough droplets, such as wearing face masks, using handkerchiefs and coughing into one's elbow (stock)

Researchers say there are certain things which can reduce the spread of cough droplets, such as wearing face masks, using handkerchiefs and coughing into one’s elbow (stock)

‘We found that anything that reduces the distance travelled by the cloud… should greatly reduce the region over which the droplets disperse upon coughing,’ said paper author and engineer Rajneesh Bhardwaj of the Indian Institute of Technology.

This, he added, in turn therefore greatly reduces ‘the chances of infection.’ 

According to the team, practices that can lower the distance the cloud travels include wearing face masks, using handkerchiefs and coughing into one’s elbow.

Researchers from India calculated how cough clouds evolve as they spread out and how much various forms of covering can control their spread — including surgical-style masks, pictured

Researchers from India calculated how cough clouds evolve as they spread out and how much various forms of covering can control their spread — including surgical-style masks, pictured

Researchers from India calculated how cough clouds evolve as they spread out and how much various forms of covering can control their spread — including  N95 respirators, pictured

Researchers from India calculated how cough clouds evolve as they spread out and how much various forms of covering can control their spread — including  N95 respirators, pictured

Researchers from India calculated how cough clouds evolve as they spread out and how much various forms of covering can control their spread — including surgical-style masks, left, and N95 respirators, right

Previous studies have typically focused on the properties of the air — and coughed-out droplets — close to the mouth, considering such factors as the cloud volume, temperature, droplet distribution and humidity.

In their research, however, Professor Bhardwaj and fellow engineer Amit Agrawal set out to determine how these properties change as the cough cloud travels.

By using an analysis based in so-called jet theory, the duo found that the first 5–8 seconds following a cough are vital for suspending infectious droplets in the air — and therefore in the potential to spread coronavirus to other individuals.

After this point, they explained, the cloud tends to disperse.

Alongside the significant reduction in expelled cloud volume brought about by wearing face masks, the researchers also found — surprisingly — that how hard a mask-less person coughs does not affect the volume of the cloud they release.

However, it was important when you wear a mask, they said. Coughing harder leads to faster-travelling droplets as well as more of them.   

The full findings of the study were published in the journal Physics of Fluids.

FACE MASK POLICY IN THE UK

Face masks must be worn on public transport and in many indoor spaces, including shops, shopping centres, indoor transport hubs, museums, galleries, cinemas and public libraries. 

It is currently the law for passengers to wear face coverings in taxis and private hire vehicles, in hospitality venues, like restaurants and bars, other than when you are eating and drinking. Staff in retail and hospitality settings are also legally required to wear face coverings. 

If necessary, the police and Transport for London (TfL) officers have enforcement powers including issuing fines of £200 (halving to £100 if paid within 14 days).

It comes after the World Health Organisation and numerous studies suggested they are beneficial.

As announced, the Government will bring forward changes to mean that for repeat offenders these fines would double at each offence up to a maximum value of £6,400.  

The Prime Minister has also announced tougher enforcement measures, with businesses facing fines or closure for failing to comply with coronavirus rules, meaning there will be consequences for pubs that try to serve you at the bar.

National Police Chiefs’ Council chairman Martin Hewitt said: ‘Individuals, businesses and households all have a responsibility to ensure the virus is suppressed and police will play their part in supporting the public to navigate the measures in place for our safety.

‘Our approach of engaging with people and explaining the regulations in place will remain. The vast majority of situations are resolved following those two stages, with little need for further encouragement or enforcement action to be taken,’ he said.

‘Police will continue to work with their communities and only issue fines as a last resort.

‘Chiefs will be stepping up patrols in high-risk areas and will proactively work with businesses, licensing authorities and local authorities to ensure the rules are being followed.

‘If members of the public are concerned that the law is being broken or they are experiencing anti-social behaviour, they can report this to the police, who will consider the most appropriate response and will target the most problematic behaviour.’  

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