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Robot judges will replace humans in the courtroom ‘in 50 years’

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robot judges will replace humans in the courtroom in 50 years

Robots that analyse a defendant’s body language to determine signs of guilt will replace judges by the year 2070, according to an artificial intelligence expert. 

Writer and speaker on AI Terence Mauri believes the machines will be able to detect physical and psychological signs of dishonesty with 99.9 per cent accuracy. 

He claims they will be polite, speak every known language fluently and will be able to detect signs of lying that couldn’t be detected by a human.

Robot judges will have cameras that capture and identify irregular speech patterns, unusually high increases in body temperature and hand and eye movements. 

Terence Mauri (pictured) is an AI expert, author and founder of Hack Future Lab, a global think tank. He believes robots could replace the majority of human judges and become a common feature of most criminal and civil hearings in England and Wales by the early 2070s

Terence Mauri (pictured) is an AI expert, author and founder of Hack Future Lab, a global think tank. He believes robots could replace the majority of human judges and become a common feature of most criminal and civil hearings in England and Wales by the early 2070s

Terence Mauri (pictured) is an AI expert, author and founder of Hack Future Lab, a global think tank. He believes robots could replace the majority of human judges and become a common feature of most criminal and civil hearings in England and Wales by the early 2070s

Data will be then analysed to provide an ‘error-free’ judgement of whether a defendant or witness is telling the truth.

Mauri expects the machines to be ‘commonplace’ in most criminal and civil hearings in England and Wales in 50 years, according to the Telegraph, based on his two-year study. 

‘AI has created unprecedented changes in the way that people live and work by performing complex problems with a level of consistency and speed that is unmatched by human intelligence,’ said Mauri, who runs London-based policy institute Hack Future Lab.

‘In a legal setting, AI will usher in a new, fairer form of digital justice whereby human emotion, bias and error will become a thing of the past.

‘Hearings will be quicker and the innocent will be far less likely to be convicted of a crime they did not commit.’

Robot judges will mean innocent people in the courtroom will be far less likely to be convicted of a crime they did not commit

Robot judges will mean innocent people in the courtroom will be far less likely to be convicted of a crime they did not commit

Robot judges will mean innocent people in the courtroom will be far less likely to be convicted of a crime they did not commit

Most senior judges won’t have their jobs taken, however, because they will be needed to set legally binding precedents, create new laws and oversee appeals.

And while barristers will be safe to argue their client’s case, other legal roles – including solicitors, chartered legal executives, paralegals, legal secretaries, and court clerks – will become taken by machines too by 2070.

AI will also replace human judges in criminal and civil hearings in the magistrates courts, county courts and family courts where a jury is not required, Mauri thinks.

Last year, former Justice Secretary David Gauke said AI could provide ‘simple tools to provide straightforward justice’. 

However, he said the UK is ‘some way off from seeing bewigged robot judges presiding in court rooms’. 

Former Secretary of State for Justice David Gauke backed the idea of technology like AI 'providing straightforward justice'

Former Secretary of State for Justice David Gauke backed the idea of technology like AI 'providing straightforward justice'

Former Secretary of State for Justice David Gauke backed the idea of technology like AI ‘providing straightforward justice’

‘We cannot ignore the speed at which technology is spreading and being integrated into all of our lives is throwing up some big ethical, regulatory and social questions,’ Gauke told an audience of legal professionals. ‘We need to tackle these head on.’

‘Human lawyers have emotional intelligence and are regulated, with bias that is accounted for. 

‘AI, on the other hand, operates on facts and numbers alone, is currently unregulated and data is only as unbiased as the hands and heads of its creators.’

The government announced £2 million in funding for new emerging technologies in the legal sector in June 2019, but was tight-lipped on what these technologies would be or if it would include robot personnel in the courtroom. 

The fledgling technology has already been used in Estonia, where an AI-powered judge has been used to settle small court claims of up to £6,000, freeing up human professionals to work on bigger cases.

The judge is fed legal documents, which it analyses before coming to a decision based on its pre-programmed algorithms. 

Meanwhile, China has been using a system of artificial-intelligence judges, cyber-courts and verdicts delivered on chat apps since 2017. 

A 'mobile court' offered on popular Chinese social media platform WeChat has handled more than three million legal cases or other judicial procedures since its launch in March

A 'mobile court' offered on popular Chinese social media platform WeChat has handled more than three million legal cases or other judicial procedures since its launch in March

A ‘mobile court’ offered on popular Chinese social media platform WeChat has handled more than three million legal cases or other judicial procedures since its launch in March

In a demonstration, authorities showed how the Hangzhou Internet Court operates, featuring an online interface with litigants appearing by video chat as an AI judge, complete with on-screen avatar, that prompts them to present their cases.  

Cases handled at the court include online trade disputes, copyright cases, and e-commerce product liability claims. 

The ‘cyber court’ is offered on popular social media platform WeChat, which is better known for its chat and mobile payment capabilities. 

China is encouraging digitisation to streamline case-handling within its sprawling court system using cyberspace and technologies like blockchain and cloud computing, China’s Supreme People’s Court said in a policy paper. 

WILL YOUR JOB BE TAKEN BY A ROBOT? PHYSICAL JOBS ARE AT THE GREATEST RISK

Physical jobs in predictable environments, including machine-operators and fast-food workers, are the most likely to be replaced by robots.

Management consultancy firm McKinsey, based in New York, focused on the amount of jobs that would be lost to automation, and what professions were most at risk.

The report said collecting and processing data are two other categories of activities that increasingly can be done better and faster with machines. 

This could displace large amounts of labour – for instance, in mortgages, paralegal work, accounting, and back-office transaction processing.

Conversely, jobs in unpredictable environments are least are risk.

The report added: ‘Occupations such as gardeners, plumbers, or providers of child- and eldercare – will also generally see less automation by 2030, because they are technically difficult to automate and often command relatively lower wages, which makes automation a less attractive business proposition.’

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Climate change could bring the start of Autumn forward by almost a week

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climate change could bring the start of autumn forward by almost a week

The start of autumn could begin a week sooner in the future due to climate change causing trees to capture more carbon and drop their leaves earlier in the year. 

For decades scientists expected temperate trees would shed their leaves gradually later in the year – making autumn later as average temperatures rise worldwide.

Early observations seem to show this was happening over the past few decades – driving a longer growing season that could held slow the rate of climate change. 

However, a new, large-scale study of European trees by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has found this trend has started to reverse and leaves are falling earlier.  

The new discovery means instead of autumn starting up to three weeks later, it will start between three and six days earlier over the course of the century.

Early observations seem to show this was happening over the past few decades - driving a longer growing season that could held slow the rate of climate change.

Early observations seem to show this was happening over the past few decades - driving a longer growing season that could held slow the rate of climate change.

Early observations seem to show this was happening over the past few decades – driving a longer growing season that could held slow the rate of climate change.

The presence of leaves on deciduous trees marks the changing of the seasons – and the period of time in which trees store carbon from the air.

Warning winters cause spring leaves to emerge earlier and it a widespread example of a climate-change impact, according to the team behind the study. 

The timing of when the leaves fall is harder to spot. There might be limits to how much greenhouse gas a tree can use or store in a single year, explained Dr Zani.

If all carbon needs are met, leaves might fall earlier rather than later in the autumn. 

Changes in the growing-season of trees greatly affect global carbon balance, Zani explained, but it is difficult to predict future patterns.

This is due to the fact that the environmental drivers of leaf ageing aren’t well understood by scientists. 

Autumn shedding in temperate regions like the UK is an adaptation to stressors – such as cold weather and a common assumption is that if you warm the air up this would allow leaves to persist for longer and fix more atmospheric carbon. 

Dr Zani and colleagues used long-term observations from dominant Central European tree species from 1948 to 2015 and experiments designed to modify carbon uptake to evaluate the related impacts. 

The study showed an increased growing-season in spring and summer due to more CO2, light and higher temperatures will lead to earlier leaf shedding – not later.

This is likely because roots and wood cease to use or store leaf-captured carbon at a point – making leaves costly to keep.

The researchers used the data to build a model to improve autumn prediction under a business-as-usual climate scenario – that is one where no efforts are made to slow the rate of climate change by keeping global average temperature from rising.

The model forecasts the possibility of autumn leaf-dropping dates becoming earlier over the rest of the century rather than later – as previously assumed.

However, a new, large-scale study of European trees by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has found this trend has started to reverse and leaves are falling earlier

However, a new, large-scale study of European trees by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has found this trend has started to reverse and leaves are falling earlier

However, a new, large-scale study of European trees by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has found this trend has started to reverse and leaves are falling earlier

Dr Zani said: ‘Changes in the growing-season lengths of temperate trees greatly affect biotic interactions and global carbon balance.

‘Yet future growing-season trajectories remain highly uncertain because the environmental drivers of autumn leaf deterioration are poorly understood.’

Accounting for increases in spring and summer productivity due to rising carbon uptake improved the accuracy of predictions by up to 42 per cent.

‘These findings demonstrate the critical role of sink limitation in governing the end of seasonal activity and reveal important constraints on future growing-season lengths and carbon uptake of trees,’ said Zani.

The results ‘substantially lower our expectations of the extent to which longer growing seasons will increase seasonal carbon uptake in forests,’ she added.

 

The presence of leaves on deciduous trees marks the changing of the seasons - and the period of time in which trees store carbon from the air.

The presence of leaves on deciduous trees marks the changing of the seasons - and the period of time in which trees store carbon from the air.

The presence of leaves on deciduous trees marks the changing of the seasons – and the period of time in which trees store carbon from the air.

The researchers pointed out the universality of this pattern in other forest types remains unknown – they can only say for certain it applies to temperate regions.

They note an important next avenue of research is implementing such growing-season length constraints across a wider range of systems. 

Dr Christine Rollinson, a tree scientist at The Morton Arboretum in Illinois, who was not involved in the study, said it shows the forest is not a bottomless carbon sink.

‘Thus, whereas trees and forests remain one solution for mitigating the impacts of climate change, they cannot be the sole means of response.

‘A diverse portfolio of actions that include emissions reductions and tree conservation and planting is essential to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions and climate change.’

The findings have been published in the journal Science

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Climate change could bring the start of Autumn forward by almost a week

Published

on

By

climate change could bring the start of autumn forward by almost a week

The start of autumn could begin a week sooner in the future due to climate change causing trees to capture more carbon and drop their leaves earlier in the year. 

For decades scientists expected temperate trees would shed their leaves gradually later in the year – making autumn later as average temperatures rise worldwide.

Early observations seem to show this was happening over the past few decades – driving a longer growing season that could held slow the rate of climate change. 

However, a new, large-scale study of European trees by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has found this trend has started to reverse and leaves are falling earlier.  

The new discovery means instead of autumn starting up to three weeks later, it will start between three and six days earlier over the course of the century.

Early observations seem to show this was happening over the past few decades - driving a longer growing season that could held slow the rate of climate change.

Early observations seem to show this was happening over the past few decades - driving a longer growing season that could held slow the rate of climate change.

Early observations seem to show this was happening over the past few decades – driving a longer growing season that could held slow the rate of climate change.

The presence of leaves on deciduous trees marks the changing of the seasons – and the period of time in which trees store carbon from the air.

Warning winters cause spring leaves to emerge earlier and it a widespread example of a climate-change impact, according to the team behind the study. 

The timing of when the leaves fall is harder to spot. There might be limits to how much greenhouse gas a tree can use or store in a single year, explained Dr Zani.

If all carbon needs are met, leaves might fall earlier rather than later in the autumn. 

Changes in the growing-season of trees greatly affect global carbon balance, Zani explained, but it is difficult to predict future patterns.

This is due to the fact that the environmental drivers of leaf ageing aren’t well understood by scientists. 

Autumn shedding in temperate regions like the UK is an adaptation to stressors – such as cold weather and a common assumption is that if you warm the air up this would allow leaves to persist for longer and fix more atmospheric carbon. 

Dr Zani and colleagues used long-term observations from dominant Central European tree species from 1948 to 2015 and experiments designed to modify carbon uptake to evaluate the related impacts. 

The study showed an increased growing-season in spring and summer due to more CO2, light and higher temperatures will lead to earlier leaf shedding – not later.

This is likely because roots and wood cease to use or store leaf-captured carbon at a point – making leaves costly to keep.

The researchers used the data to build a model to improve autumn prediction under a business-as-usual climate scenario – that is one where no efforts are made to slow the rate of climate change by keeping global average temperature from rising.

The model forecasts the possibility of autumn leaf-dropping dates becoming earlier over the rest of the century rather than later – as previously assumed.

However, a new, large-scale study of European trees by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has found this trend has started to reverse and leaves are falling earlier

However, a new, large-scale study of European trees by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has found this trend has started to reverse and leaves are falling earlier

However, a new, large-scale study of European trees by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has found this trend has started to reverse and leaves are falling earlier

Dr Zani said: ‘Changes in the growing-season lengths of temperate trees greatly affect biotic interactions and global carbon balance.

‘Yet future growing-season trajectories remain highly uncertain because the environmental drivers of autumn leaf deterioration are poorly understood.’

Accounting for increases in spring and summer productivity due to rising carbon uptake improved the accuracy of predictions by up to 42 per cent.

‘These findings demonstrate the critical role of sink limitation in governing the end of seasonal activity and reveal important constraints on future growing-season lengths and carbon uptake of trees,’ said Zani.

The results ‘substantially lower our expectations of the extent to which longer growing seasons will increase seasonal carbon uptake in forests,’ she added.

 

The presence of leaves on deciduous trees marks the changing of the seasons - and the period of time in which trees store carbon from the air.

The presence of leaves on deciduous trees marks the changing of the seasons - and the period of time in which trees store carbon from the air.

The presence of leaves on deciduous trees marks the changing of the seasons – and the period of time in which trees store carbon from the air.

The researchers pointed out the universality of this pattern in other forest types remains unknown – they can only say for certain it applies to temperate regions.

They note an important next avenue of research is implementing such growing-season length constraints across a wider range of systems. 

Dr Christine Rollinson, a tree scientist at The Morton Arboretum in Illinois, who was not involved in the study, said it shows the forest is not a bottomless carbon sink.

‘Thus, whereas trees and forests remain one solution for mitigating the impacts of climate change, they cannot be the sole means of response.

‘A diverse portfolio of actions that include emissions reductions and tree conservation and planting is essential to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions and climate change.’

The findings have been published in the journal Science

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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SpaceX launches reusable Falcon 9 rocket booster for SEVENTH time

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spacex launches reusable falcon 9 rocket booster for seventh time

SpaceX has reused a Falcon 9 rocket for a record breaking seventh time during its most recent mission to put another 60 Starlink satellites into orbit.

It comes as the Elon Musk-owned space launch firm is preparing for the first high altitude test flight of its mammoth Starship prototype spaceship – dubbed SN8. 

Launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida at 02:13 GMT this morning, the Falcon 9 flight was the seventh time that particular first stage booster had been used.

This beat the previous record for a booster of six trips and helps Musk in his mission to bring down the cost of launching payloads from the Earth by reusing equipment.

The Falcon 9 launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida in the early hours of this morning carrying the 16th batch of Starlink satellites

The Falcon 9 launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida in the early hours of this morning carrying the 16th batch of Starlink satellites

The Falcon 9 launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida in the early hours of this morning carrying the 16th batch of Starlink satellites

SpaceX was able to recover the booster from the Atlantic Ocean using a drone flight – which means it may be able to fly for an eighth time in the future.

The booster wasn’t the only part of the Falcon 9 to be reused during this flight – that brings the total of small Starlink internet satellites up to nearly 1,000.

The fairing cover used to protect the payload had also been used before – half on one other trip and another on two different trips before this one, SpaceX confirmed.

Every time SpaceX is able to reuse a component it reduces the cost of getting material into low Earth orbit compared to using parts for the first time.

Research by the Center for Strategic and International Studies found that the average cost of putting 1kg of material in orbit on a SpaceX launch is $2,600.

In comparison, the average cost to put a 1kg object in orbit from a Russian Soyuz was $17,900 and the United Launch Alliance Delta E came in at $177,900 per kg. 

Musk is working to bring that cost down even further with each element of the Falcon 9 they are able to reuse.

Part of that drive to reuse is pushing development of the massive Starship two-stage-to-orbit fully-reusable heavy lift vehicle.

It has been under development since 2012 and is designed to bring the cost of each launch downs significantly by being fully reusable.

A single Falcon 9 launch costs about $51 million if it is reusing components that have flown before – Musk hopes to get the Spaceship launch in at $2 million per trip.

That reality could soon be a step closer as the firm is preparing to send up the latest prototype Starship SN8 on a high altitude test flight.

Musk tweeted that it has already undergone a successful static fire test and that in the next week or so it would fly up to about nine miles into the sky.

This beat the previous record for a booster of six trips and helps Musk in his mission to bring down the cost of launching payloads from the Earth by reusing equipment

This beat the previous record for a booster of six trips and helps Musk in his mission to bring down the cost of launching payloads from the Earth by reusing equipment

 This beat the previous record for a booster of six trips and helps Musk in his mission to bring down the cost of launching payloads from the Earth by reusing equipment

Space X performed the third over all static fire on Starship SN8 Thursday November 12 at its Boca Chica facility in Texas. The next stage is a high altitude test

Space X performed the third over all static fire on Starship SN8 Thursday November 12 at its Boca Chica facility in Texas. The next stage is a high altitude test

Space X performed the third over all static fire on Starship SN8 Thursday November 12 at its Boca Chica facility in Texas. The next stage is a high altitude test

The edge of space is agreed by NASA and others to be 50 miles above sea level but to go into orbit you need to get to at least 100 miles above sea level.

If this latest flight test – that will see the triple Raptor engine fire and lift the 400ft spaceship into the air – is successful, then further, higher tests will likely follow.

November 30 has been provisionally set aside as the date of the high altitude test that will see the spaceship reach the highest it has ever flown.

Musk tweeted: ‘Good Starship SN8 static fire! Aiming for first 15km / ~50k ft altitude flight next week. Goals are to test 3 engine ascent, body flaps, transition from main to header tanks & landing flip.’

The landing is one of the most important aspects – as it needs to be fully reusable to achieve the goals and price per flight set out by the SpaceX team. 

WHAT IS ELON MUSK’S ‘BFR’?

The BFR (Big F***ing Rocket), now known as Starship, will complete all missions and is smaller than the ones Musk announced in 2016.

The SpaceX CEO said the rocket would take its first trip to the red planet in 2022, carrying only cargo, followed by a manned mission in 2024 and claimed other SpaceX’s products would be ‘cannibalised’ to pay for it.

The rocket would be partially reusable and capable of flight directly from Earth to Mars.

Once built, Musk believes the rocket could be used for travel on Earth – saying that passengers would be able to get anywhere in under an hour.

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44DFD4DC00000578 4933944 image a 77 1506734013996

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