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SpaceX aims to build a Starlink mega constellation around MARS

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spacex aims to build a starlink mega constellation around mars

Elon Musk has an ambitious plan to build a city of one million people on Mars and believes SpaceX’s Starlink satellites will play a key role in the mission.

The company’s president and COO Gwynee Shotwell recently shared details with TIMEmagazine about bringing this technology to the Red Planet.

‘Once we take people to Mars, they are going to need a capability to communicate,’ says Shotwell.

‘In fact, I think it will be even more critical to have a constellation like Starlink around Mars.’

Not only will the satellites beam internet to those living on Mars, but the team will act as a bridge for the planet to communicate with Earth.

Although SpaceX has its sights set on Mars, Shotwell said they are not giving up one Earth – it is to give ‘humanity another shot in case there were to be some horrible event’ on our planet.

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Elon Musk has an ambitious plan to build a city of one million people on Mars (pictured) and believes SpaceX’s Starlink satellites will play a key role in the mission

Elon Musk has an ambitious plan to build a city of one million people on Mars (pictured) and believes SpaceX’s Starlink satellites will play a key role in the mission

‘Elon founded this company with the entire purpose of building a space transportation capability that would allow humans to move to other planets,’ Shotwell says in the interview.

‘I remember when I was interviewing with Elon in 2002 and he had such an ambitious goal, it sounded absolutely insane at the time.’

‘Now almost 20 years later, it doesn’t actually sound that insane. Well at least not to the insiders.’

Musk has had his heart set on colonizing Mars for many years and is not shy about how he plans to make it happen.

This past January, he was aiming to put a million people on the Red Planet by 2050. He planned for three flights a day – or 1,000 flights a year – with 100 people on each one.

And in 2017, the tech tycoon had the idea to send two cargo ships to Mars in 2022, followed by four other vessels – two with cargo and two with human settlers in 2024.

‘I want you to understand that we are not giving up on Earth when we talk about building capability to move humanity to other planets,’ Shotwell explains in the interview.

‘It’s not giving up on Earth, it’s actually just giving humanity another shot in case there were to be some horrible event.’

Along with Starlink, SpaceX’s Starship rocket is also a key player in humans becoming an inter-planetary species.

Not only will the satellites beam internet to those living on Mars, but the team will act as a bridge for the planet to communicate with Earth (pictured is a concept image of the Starlink constellation around Earth)

Not only will the satellites beam internet to those living on Mars, but the team will act as a bridge for the planet to communicate with Earth (pictured is a concept image of the Starlink constellation around Earth)

Musk has had his heart set on colonizing Mars for many years and is not shy about how he plans to make it happen. This past January, he was aiming to put a million people on the Red Planet by 2050. He planned for three flights a day - or 1,000 flights a year - with 100 people on each one

Musk has had his heart set on colonizing Mars for many years and is not shy about how he plans to make it happen. This past January, he was aiming to put a million people on the Red Planet by 2050. He planned for three flights a day – or 1,000 flights a year – with 100 people on each one

Musk shared the craft’s progress during the virtual Humans to Mars Summit last month, saying the rocket ‘is making progresses,’ but also raised concerns about building a base on the planet.

Musk suggested constructing a self-sustaining city will be ‘difficult’ and there will be a number of dangers settlers may face while developing the galactic civilization.

‘I want to emphasize, this is a very hard and dangerous and difficult thing,’ Musk said.

Along with Starlink, SpaceX’s Starship rocket is also a key player in humans becoming an inter-planetary species

Along with Starlink, SpaceX’s Starship rocket is also a key player in humans becoming an inter-planetary species

‘Not for the faint of heart. Good chance you’ll die. And it’s going to be tough, tough going, but it’ll be pretty glorious if it works out.’

Although Musk has painted a picture of humans on Mars, he has stated in the past that he himself may never make it due to SpaceX’s lack of progress.

‘We’ve got to improve our rate of innovation or, based on past trends, I am definitely going to be dead before Mars,’ Musk said during a discussion in March.

ELON MUSK’S SPACEX SET TO BRING BROADBAND INTERNET TO THE WORLD WITH ITS STARLINK CONSTELLATION OF SATELLITES

Elon Musk’s SpaceX has launched the fifth batch of its ‘Starlink’ space internet satellites – taking the total to 300.

They form a constellation of thousands of satellites, designed to provide low-cost broadband internet service from low Earth orbit.

The constellation, informally known as Starlink, and under development at SpaceX’s facilities in Redmond, Washington.

Its goal is to beam superfast internet into your home from space.

While satellite internet has been around for a while, it has suffered from high latency and unreliable connections.

Starlink is different. SpaceX says putting a ‘constellation’ of satellites in low earth orbit would provide high-speed, cable-like internet all over the world.

The billionaire’s company wants to create the global system to help it generate more cash.

Musk has previously said the venture could give three billion people who currently do not have access to the internet a cheap way of getting online.

It could also help fund a future city on Mars.

Helping humanity reach the red planet is one of Musk’s long-stated aims and was what inspired him to start SpaceX.

The company recently filed plans with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to launch 4,425 satellites into orbit above the Earth – three times as many that are currently in operation.

‘Once fully deployed, the SpaceX system will pass over virtually all parts of the Earth’s surface and therefore, in principle, have the ability to provide ubiquitous global service,’ the firm said.

‘Every point on the Earth’s surface will see, at all times, a SpaceX satellite.’

The network will provide internet access to the US and the rest of the world, it added.

It is expected to take more than five years and $9.8 billion (£7.1bn) of investment, although satellite internet has proved an expensive market in the past and analysts expect the final bill will be higher.

Musk compared the project to ‘rebuilding the internet in space’, as it would reduce reliance on the existing network of undersea fibre-optic cables which criss-cross the planet.

In the US, the FCC welcomed the scheme as a way to provide internet connections to more people.

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Pollution regulations to reduce dirty air have saved 1.5 BILLION birds in the US over 40 years

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pollution regulations to reduce dirty air have saved 1 5 billion birds in the us over 40 years

US pollution controls aren’t just good for the atmosphere, they’re saving our winged friends, too.

Ozone gasses, a leading contributor to smog, is linked tied to health problems in both humans and avians. 

A new study found that regulations intended to reduce the pollution have also slowed the decline of bird populations in the US.  

Scientists at Cornell and the University of Oregon tracked changes in bird abundance, ozone emissions and regulation status across the nation over a 15 year period.

Extrapolating their findings, they found caps on ozone emissions may have saved as many as 1.5 billion birds in the past 40 years, – equal to 20 percent of all birds in the United States today.

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A new Cornell study on EPA policies shows

A new Cornell study on EPA policies shows

A new Cornell study on EPA regulations shows efforts to curb ozone production have saved more than a billion birds in the last 40 years. The gas is not only harmful to the animals’ respiratory system, it can kill off the plants and insects they eat

Ozone occurs naturally, but automobiles and power plants have contributed to a significant increase in its production. 

While it’s necessary in the upper atmosphere to protect us from the sun’s ultraviolet rays, at ground level ozone causes smog and contributes to respiratory and cardiovascular disease, especially in the young and the elderly.

Numerous studies have connected ozone at levels currently found in many urban areas to low birth weights, asthma, and even early death.  

It’s also detrimental to bird life, especially the small migratory birds — like sparrows and finches — that make up more than three-quarters of all North American species. 

Ozone is a leading ingredient in smog and has been linked to respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease and low birth weight, among other health risks

Ozone is a leading ingredient in smog and has been linked to respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease and low birth weight, among other health risks

Ozone is a leading ingredient in smog and has been linked to respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease and low birth weight, among other health risks 

As with humans, it impacts their respiratory system — but it can also kill off the plants and insects that serve as their chief food sources.

‘Not surprisingly, birds that cannot access high-quality habitat or food resources are less likely to survive or reproduce successfully,’ said Amanda Rodewald, director of Cornell’s Center for Avian Population Studies and co-author of a new report in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

‘The good news here is that environmental policies intended to protect human health return important benefits for birds, too.’

To get an idea of how regulations have impacted this country’s winged population, Rodewald and environmental economist Ivan Rudik combined pollution data with environmental policies and bird observations from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, tracking.

A separate 2019 study by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology showed that North American bird populations have declined by nearly 3 billion birds since 1970

A separate 2019 study by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology showed that North American bird populations have declined by nearly 3 billion birds since 1970

A separate 2019 study by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology showed that North American bird populations have declined by nearly 3 billion birds since 1970

They tracked monthly changes in bird abundance, air quality, and regulation status over 15 years in more than 3,200 counties.

The team focused on the EPA’s NOx (nitrogen oxide) Budget Trading Program, a cap-and-trade initiative launched in 2003 to reduce ozone emissions from power plants and other large industrial sources during the summer months.

A separate 2019 study by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology showed that North American bird populations have declined by nearly 3 billion birds since 1970.

Without existing environmental regulations, Rodewald and Rudik say, an estimated 1.5 billion more birds would have died.

‘Our research shows that the benefits of environmental regulation have likely been underestimated,’ said Rudik. 

‘Reducing pollution has positive impacts in unexpected places and provides an additional policy lever for conservation efforts.’  

The Trump administration has been criticized for rolling back dozens of environmental regulations,

In June 2017, then-EPA administrator Scott Pruitt announced he was delaying enforcement of an Obama-era regulation governing ozone emissions, The New York Times reports.

In August of that year, one day after 16 state attorneys general filed a lawsuit claiming the agency was violating the Clean Air Act, Pruitt reversed his decision and said he would enforce the policy.

Heather McTeer Toney, a former regional EPA administrator under the Obama administration, is among a short-list of candidates being considered to lead the agency under President-elect Biden, Reuters reports. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Trove of arrows dating back 6,000 years are discovered in Norway after drastic amounts of ice melts 

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trove of arrows dating back 6000 years are discovered in norway after drastic amounts of ice melts

A veritable treasure trove of ancient artifacts has been discovered in an Norwegian ice patch that climate change has caused to melt.

Researchers found nearly 70 arrow shafts, plus shoes, textiles and reindeer bones on a mountainside in Jotunheimen, about 240 miles from Oslo.

Based on radiocarbon dating, the oldest arrows are from around 4100 BC, with the most recent dating from 1300 AD.

While the discovery confirms the region was a popular spot for reindeer hunting millennia ago, it upends conventional wisdom about how ice patches can be used to interpret the historical record.

Archaeologists had assumed the ice preserved items as they were deposited, sealing them in place and providing a timeline — with older relics on the bottom and newer ones on top.

But the different amounts of weathering on the objects, as well as their seemingly random order, counters the theory that ice patches are like photographs, presenting a preserved image of the past.

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A 1,300-year-old arrow discovered at Langfonne. A record-setting 68 arrows were found in all in the Norwegian ice patch, some with their arrowheads still attached

A 1,300-year-old arrow discovered at Langfonne. A record-setting 68 arrows were found in all in the Norwegian ice patch, some with their arrowheads still attached

A 1,300-year-old arrow discovered at Langfonne. A record-setting 68 arrows were found in all in the Norwegian ice patch, some with their arrowheads still attached

A record-setting 68 arrows were found in all, some with their arrowheads still attached.

The heads were made from a variety of materials — iron, quartzite, slate, mussel shell and even bone.

 Several still had the twine and tar used to affix them to a wooden shaft.

The biggest number of arrows dated to 700 through 750 AD, but the oldest were some 6,000 years old.

A 4,000-year-old arrowhead made from quartzite. Other arrow tips were made from slate, bone and sharpened mussel shell.

A 4,000-year-old arrowhead made from quartzite. Other arrow tips were made from slate, bone and sharpened mussel shell.

A 4,000-year-old arrowhead made from quartzite. Other arrow tips were made from slate, bone and sharpened mussel shell.

A 4,000-year-old arrow shaft found on the ice. Based on radiocarbon dating, the oldest arrows are from around 4100 BC, with the most recent dating from 1300 AD

A 4,000-year-old arrow shaft found on the ice. Based on radiocarbon dating, the oldest arrows are from around 4100 BC, with the most recent dating from 1300 AD

A 4,000-year-old arrow shaft found on the ice. Based on radiocarbon dating, the oldest arrows are from around 4100 BC, with the most recent dating from 1300 AD

An aerial photo of Langfonne's three separate main ice patches.  Because of global warming, it is now less than 30 percent of the size it was just two decades ago, according to Pilø

An aerial photo of Langfonne's three separate main ice patches.  Because of global warming, it is now less than 30 percent of the size it was just two decades ago, according to Pilø

An aerial photo of Langfonne’s three separate main ice patches.  Because of global warming, it is now less than 30 percent of the size it was just two decades ago, according to Pilø

‘This is earlier than finds from any other ice site in Northern Europe,’ according to archaeologist Lars Holger Pilø, ‘and about 800 years earlier than Ötzi,’ the 5,100-year-old ice mummy found in the Tyrolean Alps in 1991.

Other artifacts from Langfonne include a well-preserved shoe from more than 3,000 years ago and fabric Pilø says may have been used to package meat.   

The Langfonne ice patch was first uncovered in 2006, when hiker Reidar Marstein discovered a leather shoe from the early Bronze Age there and reported it to Pilø.

At the time, researchers had assumed new layers of snow added to a patch, like strata in the earth, with older layers near the core and newer layers near the surface.

Map of ice sites in Innlandet County. The Langfonne ice patch was first discovered in 2006

Map of ice sites in Innlandet County. The Langfonne ice patch was first discovered in 2006

Map of ice sites in Innlandet County. The Langfonne ice patch was first discovered in 2006

Examples of arrows found at Langfonne. Left shows the nock end of an arrow and right shows a partially preserved arrow shaft in four fragments at the bottom left of the picture

Examples of arrows found at Langfonne. Left shows the nock end of an arrow and right shows a partially preserved arrow shaft in four fragments at the bottom left of the picture

Examples of arrows found at Langfonne. Left shows the nock end of an arrow and right shows a partially preserved arrow shaft in four fragments at the bottom left of the picture

‘The idea was, ice is like a time machine. Anything that lands on it stays there and is protected,’ Pilø, a researcher with the Innlandet County Council Cultural Heritage Department, told National Geographic.

But a closer examination showed the ice melted and re-froze numerous times over the millennia, shifting the arrows around from their original locations.

In addition, if the patch was acting like a time machine, older artifacts should have been just as well preserved as newer ones.

Archaeologists taking samples and artifacts from Langfonne. Analysis of the arrows found on the site disprove the theory that ice patches present a perfectly preserved image of history 'like a time machine'

Archaeologists taking samples and artifacts from Langfonne. Analysis of the arrows found on the site disprove the theory that ice patches present a perfectly preserved image of history 'like a time machine'

Archaeologists taking samples and artifacts from Langfonne. Analysis of the arrows found on the site disprove the theory that ice patches present a perfectly preserved image of history ‘like a time machine’

Instead, the Neolithic arrows were broken and heavily weathered, suggesting they had been exposed to the elements at various times.

The 14th century arrows, though, ‘looked as though they were shot just yesterday,’ National Geographic reported. 

‘This led to a suspicion that something had happened to them while inside the ice,’ Pilø wrote in a blog post on Wednesday.

A view of Langfonne ice patch, from the top of the mountain

A view of Langfonne ice patch, from the top of the mountain

A view of Langfonne ice patch, from the top of the mountain

In a new report in the journal Holocene, Pilø says that makes it hard to glean certain information about the people who used these artifacts.

‘The ice is an artifact-preserver but it is also at the same time a destroyer of history,’ he told Nat Geo.

New discoveries may still present themselves as Langfonne, now split into three smaller patches, continues to thaw.

Its melting is part of a worldwide pattern of retreating mountain glaciers linked to global warming, Pilø wrote.

‘Langfonne has retreated dramatically in the last two decades. It is now less than 30 percent of the size it was 20 years ago. This retreat is clearly visible in the landscape.’

And the patch is only 10 percent of what it was at its height, he said, during the ‘Little Ice Age’ that took place between the 15th and 20th century.

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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When will Earth be eco-friendly? Most Americans believe the world will be greener by 2042

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when will earth be eco friendly most americans believe the world will be greener by 2042

This year may have been rough, but as 2020 comes to a close many Americans are looking forward to a better future – and a greener one.

A new survey reveals 59 percent foresee a ‘completely environmentally friendly’ Earth by year 2042, but the majority understands that it is only possible if we all work together.

The idea of going green is producing zero waste and running on renewable energy, along with swapping cars for a bicycle or walking and adopting a plant-based diet.

Among ways to create a better world, 70 percent of the respondents also believe climate change is the single biggest threat facing humanity.

A new survey reveals 59 percent foresee a ‘completely environmentally friendly' Earth by year 2042, but the majority understands that it is only possible if we all work together. The idea of going green is producing zero waste and running on renewable energy

A new survey reveals 59 percent foresee a ‘completely environmentally friendly' Earth by year 2042, but the majority understands that it is only possible if we all work together. The idea of going green is producing zero waste and running on renewable energy

A new survey reveals 59 percent foresee a ‘completely environmentally friendly’ Earth by year 2042, but the majority understands that it is only possible if we all work together. The idea of going green is producing zero waste and running on renewable energy

The study was conducted by Cool Effect, which survey 2,000 adults living in the US to understand how Americans feel about climate change and the steps they are willing to take to combat its effects, according to StudyFinds.

The top answers for what a completely environmentally friendly world was a tie of 57 percent for zero waste and using nothing but renewable energy.

Approximately 52 percent said banning single-use plastics, which is a law in eight states currently.

Nearly half of the respondents suggested people bike or walk to their destination instead of driving, while some Americans think an eco-friendly life is a more plant-based diet.

Respondents also suggested swapping cars for a bicycle or walking and adopting a plant-based diet. Among ways to create a better world, 70 percent of the respondents also believe climate change is the single biggest threat facing humanity

Respondents also suggested swapping cars for a bicycle or walking and adopting a plant-based diet. Among ways to create a better world, 70 percent of the respondents also believe climate change is the single biggest threat facing humanity

Respondents also suggested swapping cars for a bicycle or walking and adopting a plant-based diet. Among ways to create a better world, 70 percent of the respondents also believe climate change is the single biggest threat facing humanity

A finding that came out of the new survey shows that a third of those polled have actually switched careers for a more eco-friendly company and 68 percent have or are willing to pack up their lives and move to a more sustainable city

However, although these Americans are willing to fight for a greener world, the research found that many of them are not aware of their own personal carbon footprint – only 36 percent could produce an answer.

The survey also suggests that Americans tend to ignore their personal responsibility  and feel their own carbon footprint is not making an impact on the warming world.

A previous study from 2019 found that some Americans overestimate their contribution – both findings suggests they need to meet in the middle  

However, data from the United States Department of Energy shows the average American emits roughly 17 tons of carbon per year – survey respondents said it was only 11.4 tons.

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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