Connect with us

Technology

Supernova explosion: The final stellar fireworks will occur 10 to the 32,000th years in the future

Published

on

supernova explosion the final stellar fireworks will occur 10 to the 32000th years in the future

The universe will gradually become a dark and quiet place as stars slowly fizzle out, but in trillions of years a few will let off one last spark of energy, a new study found.

Physicist Matt Caplan from Illinois State University calculated that the last ‘white dwarf’ stars will become black dwarfs and will explode in a supernova.

This won’t happen for an incredibly long time, according to Caplan, who said the first one won’t explode for 10 to the 1100th years – that is trillion one hundred times. 

This last bursts of energy as the stars die will be in isolation, as by that point all galaxies in the universe will have dispersed and black holes will have evaporated. 

‘It will be a bit of a sad, lonely, cold place,’ said Caplan, who added ‘no one will be around to witness this long farewell happening in the far far future’. 

The end of all things is known as the heat death of the universe and Caplan predicts these explosions won’t happen until after all galaxies and black holes have gone.

Artist impression of a black dwarf star.  This last bursts of energy as the stars die will be in isolation, as by that point all galaxies in the universe will have dispersed and black holes will have evaporated

Artist impression of a black dwarf star.  This last bursts of energy as the stars die will be in isolation, as by that point all galaxies in the universe will have dispersed and black holes will have evaporated

Caplan predicts that many white dwarfs – the stellar remnants of stars up to 10 times the size of our Sun – may explode in supernova in the distant far future. 

In the universe now, the dramatic death of massive stars in supernova explosions comes when internal nuclear reactions produce iron in the core. 

Iron cannot be burnt by stars – it accumulates like a poison, triggering the star’s collapse creating and in turn leading to a supernova explosion.

But smaller stars tend to die with a bit more dignity, shrinking and becoming white dwarfs at the end of their lives – this is what will happen to the Sun.

‘Stars less than about 10 times the mass of the sun do not have the gravity or density to produce iron in their cores the way massive stars do, so they can’t explode in a supernova right now,’ said Caplan. 

‘As white dwarfs cool down over the next few trillion years, they’ll grow dimmer, eventually freeze solid, and become ‘black dwarf’ stars that no longer shine.’ 

The universe isn’t old enough for any ‘black dwarf’ stars to have formed but they will be similar to white dwarf’s today – made of light elements like carbon and oxygen. 

The dark stars will be the size of the Earth but contain about as much mass as the sun with their insides squeezed to extreme densities.

BLACK DWARF: THE  FROZEN REMNANTS OF SUN-LIKE STARS

A black dwarf is a type of ‘dead star’ that won’t exist for trillions of years. 

It is what physicists predict white dwarf stars will become when they no longer emit significant heat or light. 

The first black dwarf won’t form for trillions of years – well after the current 13.8 billion year age of the universe. 

Stars up to 10 times as massive as our Sun will likely become black dwarfs. 

New research suggests those larger than 1.2 times the mass of the Sun could eventually go supernova. 

Advertisement

However, Caplan claims that just because these black dwarf stars are cold – it doesn’t mean their nuclear reactions will have stopped. 

‘Stars shine because of thermonuclear fusion – they’re hot enough to smash small nuclei together to make larger nuclei, which releases energy,’ he explained.

‘White dwarfs are ash, they’re burnt out, but fusion reactions can still happen because of quantum tunneling, only much slower.’

This is the process where subatomic particle’s probability disappear from one side of a barrier and appear on the other side.  

‘Fusion happens, even at zero temperature, it just takes a long time,’ Caplan said, noting this is the key for turning black dwarfs into iron and triggering a supernova. 

Caplan worked to calculate just how long it will take for that fusion to happen – and it is an incredibly long time – trillions upon trillions of years.

He calls his theoretical explosions ‘black dwarf supernova’ and calculates that the first one will occur in about 10 to the 1,100th years. 

‘In years, it’s like saying the word ‘trillion’ almost a hundred times. If you wrote it out, it would take up most of a page. It’s mindbogglingly far in the future,’ he said.

This is not a fate the Sun can expect in the long-distant future. Our star is too small to ever explode and will just continue to fizzle out as the universe goes dark.

‘Only the most massive black dwarfs, about 1.2 to 1.4 times the mass of the Sun, will blow,’ Caplan explained, saying about 1 per cent of stars existing today will explode. 

That means about a billion trillion stars – all alive now – can expect to die this way.  

The end of all things is known as the heat death of the universe and Caplan predicts these explosions won't happen until after all galaxies and black holes have gone

The end of all things is known as the heat death of the universe and Caplan predicts these explosions won’t happen until after all galaxies and black holes have gone

‘Even with very slow nuclear reactions, our sun still doesn’t have enough mass to ever explode in a supernova, even in the far far future. 

‘You could turn the whole sun to iron and it still wouldn’t pop,’ Caplan said.

The most massive black dwarfs will explode first followed by progressively less massive stars until there are no more left that are big enough to go supernova.

This final explosion will happen in about 10 to the 32,000th years – or saying the word trillion more than three thousand times.

“It’s hard to imagine anything coming after that, black dwarf supernova might be the last interesting thing to happen in the universe,’ Caplan said.

At this point the expansion of the universe will have pulled all remaining objects so far apart that none will ever see any of the others explode. 

‘It won’t even be physically possible for light to travel that far,’ he explained. 

The findings have been published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SUPERNOVAE OCCUR WHEN A GIANT STAR EXPLODES

A supernova occurs when a star explodes, shooting debris and particles into space.

A supernova burns for only a short period of time, but it can tell scientists a lot about how the universe began.

One kind of supernova has shown scientists that we live in an expanding universe, one that is growing at an ever increasing rate.

Scientists have also determined that supernovas play a key role in distributing elements throughout the universe.

In 1987, astronomers spotted a ‘titanic supernova’ in a nearby galaxy blazing with the power of over 100 million suns (pictured)

In 1987, astronomers spotted a ‘titanic supernova’ in a nearby galaxy blazing with the power of over 100 million suns (pictured)

There are two known types of supernova.

The first type occurs in binary star systems when one of the two stars, a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, steals matter from its companion star.

Eventually, the white dwarf accumulates too much matter, causing the star to explode, resulting in a supernova.

The second type of supernova occurs at the end of a single star’s lifetime.

As the star runs out of nuclear fuel, some of its mass flows into its core.

Eventually, the core is so heavy it can’t stand its own gravitational force and the core collapses, resulting in another giant explosion. 

Many elements found on Earth are made in the core of stars and these elements travel on to form new stars, planets and everything else in the universe.

Advertisement

Powered by: Daily Mail

Continue Reading
Advertisement
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Technology

US company launches the world’s first glucose sport biosensor 

Published

on

By

us company launches the worlds first glucose sport biosensor

A US healthcare company has revealed the world’s first glucose sport biosensor, which takes blood sugar readings and displays the results on a smartphone.   

The ‘Libre Sense’ device, developed by Illinois-based firm Abbott, is a round white biosensor, about the size of a £2 coin, that attaches to the back of the upper arm.

Upon application, it inserts a tiny 0.2-inch filament just under the skin, held in place with a small adhesive pad, to provide continual blood readings.  

Application and removal of the sensor, which is set to start shipping this December, is pain-free, the company says.   

Wearers automatically receive real-time glucose data, streamed every minute to an associated app via Bluetooth, when they tap their phone against the sensor. 

The eerie Black Mirror-esque device is just like ‘having a molecular laboratory on your arm’ and provides a ‘window into your body’. 

The biosensor is applied to the back of the upper arm with a simple, disposable product called an applicator

The biosensor is applied to the back of the upper arm with a simple, disposable product called an applicator

The biosensor is applied to the back of the upper arm with a simple, disposable product called an applicator

Abbott is aiming to help athletes track the connection between blood sugar levels and performance with continual updates.  

Tracking and understanding glucose levels enable athletes to refuel appropriately with sugar boosts during their workout. 

Maintaining a stable glucose level during exercise helps manage energy supplies and avoid muscle fatigue. 

Libre Sense is based on Abbott’s glucose monitoring technology FreeStyle Libre, which was originally developed for people living with diabetes. 

This is the first personal-use product based on FreeStyle Libre sensing technology that allows for use beyond diabetes, Abbott claims.  

‘Our breakthrough sensing technology has the potential to go beyond glucose and provide a lens into what’s happening in the human body,’ said Jared Watkin, senior vice president for diabetes care at Abbott. 

‘This could provide meaningful insights into other conditions, treatments and ultimately improve health.’ 

Libre Sense, which needs to be replaced after 14 days, can be worn while cycling, running, exercising, swimming, bathing and showering. 

Abbott stressed that that Libre Sense is solely for sports use and is not intended to be used to diagnose or treat diseases.  

Application and removal of the sensor is pain-free. It has a thin, flexible filament that's inserted under the skin to accurately measure glucose levels inside the body from the interstitial fluid - a thin layer of fluid surrounding the cells of the tissues just below the skin

Application and removal of the sensor is pain-free. It has a thin, flexible filament that's inserted under the skin to accurately measure glucose levels inside the body from the interstitial fluid - a thin layer of fluid surrounding the cells of the tissues just below the skin

Application and removal of the sensor is pain-free. It has a thin, flexible filament that’s inserted under the skin to accurately measure glucose levels inside the body from the interstitial fluid – a thin layer of fluid surrounding the cells of the tissues just below the skin

The device has been tested to withstand immersion in up to 3 feet (one metre) of water for up to 30 minutes.     

It’s attached to the back of the arm using a disposable product called an applicator, which creates a small puncture. 

According to Abbott, application was generally, if not unanimously, thought to be pain-free in tests.

The firm found that 91.6 per cent of 119 users surveyed agreed that it was painless when applied to their arm.

A thin, flexible filament is then inserted under the skin to accurately measure glucose levels inside the body from the interstitial fluid – a thin layer of fluid surrounding the cells of the tissues just below the skin.     

To take glucose readings, users scan the biosensor with an app on their smartphone.

After that, users will start to receive a stream of glucose data via Bluetooth every minute on the app.  

Different sports technology companies are creating their own apps to work with the device, including Atlanta-based Supersapiens, which has partnered with teams at the Tour de France.

The device can be used while running, cycling and general exercise and has been tested to withstand immersion in up to 3 feet of water for up to 30 minutes

The device can be used while running, cycling and general exercise and has been tested to withstand immersion in up to 3 feet of water for up to 30 minutes

The device can be used while running, cycling and general exercise and has been tested to withstand immersion in up to 3 feet of water for up to 30 minutes

‘With Abbott’s Libre Sense, for the first time, an athlete will have access to glucose data to help give them insight into their body’s fuel level at all times, fundamentally changing the way athletes think about energy management,’ said Phil Southerland, founder of Supersapiens and former professional cyclist. 

‘By combining Abbott’s proven track record in glucose sensing technology, along with Supersapiens’ app and personalised analytics, athletes will be primed to sustain peak performance.’ 

Supersapiens app for the device will be available to download for free from the Apple App Store and Google Play from December.  

This coincides with shipping dates for the device itself, which is available to pre-order only on the Supersapiens website.

Prices start from €130 (£119) for a subscription, which gives users two of the devices to cover use for 28 days.  

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO CONTROL BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS? 

Many people who live with diabetes don’t feel any particular symptoms, unless they are experiencing hyperglycemia (glucose level is too high) or hypoglycemia (glucose level is too low). 

Hyperglycemia can cause significant damage to some organs, which then leads to complications of diabetes. These include:

– cardiac or vascular event, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or stroke;

– kidney problems that may require dialysis

– eye problems, which may lead to loss of vision

– sexual issues, such as erectile dysfunction

– problems with circulation and scarring, which can lead to amputation 

To avoid the complications of diabetes, blood glucose must be under control to minimise the risk of hyperglycemia. 

This helps to prevent the complications of diabetes.

Monitoring glucose levels daily, also known as self-testing, is an essential part of managing diabetes, just like changing lifestyle habits and taking medication. 

It helps reveal see the impact of the measures being taken to better control diabetes, including:

– changes made to your diet

– losing weight

– doing physical activity

– taking medication

When a blood-glucose meter indicates that your levels are too high, required measures can bring it back to normal right away. 

This can involve modifying diet (for example, avoiding certain foods) or increasing medicine. 

When glucose levels are too high, speak to a pharmacist or health professional. 

Source: Brunet

<!—->Advertisement

Powered by: Daily Mail

Continue Reading

Technology

Winner of reality TV competition show ‘Space Hero’ will launch to the International Space Station

Published

on

By

winner of reality tv competition show space hero will launch to the international space station

A US production company announced a new reality television show competition where one winner receives a prize that is out of this world – a trip to space.

Called ‘Space Hero’, the show’s champion will launch aboard a rocket to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 10-day stay with the crew, as reported by Deadline.

The number of contestants has yet to be revealed, but those up for the challenge will undergo rigorous training and grueling tests that push them mentally, physically and emotionally.

The series is set to be shown live around the world, allowing viewers to vote for their favorite contestant to send into orbit.

The production company, also called Space Hero, has secured a seat on the 2023 mission to the ISS for the person who has the right stuff.

Scroll down for video 

Space Hero's champion will launch aboard a rocket to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 10-day stay with the crew

Space Hero's champion will launch aboard a rocket to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 10-day stay with the crew

Space Hero’s champion will launch aboard a rocket to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 10-day stay with the crew

Space Hero is being produced by Propagate, which is run by Ben Silverman and Howard T. Owens, who were involved with ‘The Office’ and ‘Who Wants to Be a Millionaire,’ CNBC reports.

Aerospace firm Axiom has also joined the venture, which will train the contestants and oversee the mission.

‘The series will search the entire globe for an everyday citizen with a deep love for space exploration,’ the company shared in a new release.

‘Space Hero will provide an opportunity for anyone from any background to become the first globally-elected space explorer to take part in a mission to the International Space Station.’

The number of contestants has yet to be revealed, but those up for the challenge will undergo rigorous training and grueling tests that push them mentally, physically and emotionally. However, the Space Hero website only shows a countdown clock and no other information about the show

The number of contestants has yet to be revealed, but those up for the challenge will undergo rigorous training and grueling tests that push them mentally, physically and emotionally. However, the Space Hero website only shows a countdown clock and no other information about the show

The number of contestants has yet to be revealed, but those up for the challenge will undergo rigorous training and grueling tests that push them mentally, physically and emotionally. However, the Space Hero website only shows a countdown clock and no other information about the show

Deadline initially reported that the winner will take a seat on a SpaceX Crew Dragon capsule for the voyage to the ISS, but Axiom told CNBC that the launcher has yet to be determined.

However, the aerospace company is currently working on other projects with SpaceX, including a 2021 Crew Dragon mission that will send three paying customers and one Axiom commander to the ISS.

A US production company announced a new reality television show competition where one winner receives a prize that is out of this world – a trip to space

A US production company announced a new reality television show competition where one winner receives a prize that is out of this world – a trip to space

A US production company announced a new reality television show competition where one winner receives a prize that is out of this world – a trip to space

Axiom told The Verge that SpaceX is not out of the running for the show, but could go against Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner.

The production company has yet to reveal details about cost, but SpaceX sell its seats for about $50 million whereas Boeing offers its for roughly $90 million.

DailyMail.com has contacted Axiom and Space Hero for more details and has yet to receive a response.

Space Hero is not the first production with its eyes on space, as NASA confirmed in May it is set to film a movie aboard the ISS starting Tom Cruise, who will blast off on a SpaceX rocket.

If it gets the go-ahead, the production would be the first action adventure feature film to be filmed in outer space.

NASA’s Jim Bridenstine shared on Twitter in May: ‘We’re excited to work with Tom Cruise on a film aboard the International Space Station.’

Deadline initially reported that the winner will take a seat on a SpaceX Crew Dragon (pictured) capsule for the voyage to the ISS, but Axiom told CNBC that the launcher has yet to be determined

Deadline initially reported that the winner will take a seat on a SpaceX Crew Dragon (pictured) capsule for the voyage to the ISS, but Axiom told CNBC that the launcher has yet to be determined

Deadline initially reported that the winner will take a seat on a SpaceX Crew Dragon (pictured) capsule for the voyage to the ISS, but Axiom told CNBC that the launcher has yet to be determined

Axiom told The Verge that SpaceX is not out of the running for the show, but could go against Boeing's CST-100 Starliner (pictured)

Axiom told The Verge that SpaceX is not out of the running for the show, but could go against Boeing's CST-100 Starliner (pictured)

Axiom told The Verge that SpaceX is not out of the running for the show, but could go against Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner (pictured)

‘We need popular media to inspire a new generation of engineers and scientists to make NASA’s ambitious plans a reality.’

There is still much be discussed before liftoff is finally approved with no studio currently said to be involved in the title, according to Deadline.

Estée Lauder also announced it is sending bottles of its new skincare serum to the massive orbiting laboratory later this month and astronauts on-board will shoot footage of the product in microgravity.

Estée Lauder president Stéphane de la Faverie announced the plan last month during an online panel at the the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics’s virtual Ascend Summit.

‘I’m a risk taker, and that tends to basically come with ideas that are a little bit, you know, outside of the normal, traditional ways of doing marketing,’ Faverie said. 

‘We’re constantly pushing the boundaries of how to showcase our products.’ 

EXPLAINED: THE $100 BILLION INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION SITS 250 MILES ABOVE THE EARTH

The International Space Station (ISS) is a $100 billion (£80 billion) science and engineering laboratory that orbits 250 miles (400 km) above Earth.

It has been permanently staffed by rotating crews of astronauts and cosmonauts since November 2000. 

Research conducted aboard the ISS often requires one or more of the unusual conditions present in low Earth orbit, such as low-gravity or oxygen.

ISS studies have investigated human research, space medicine, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and meteorology.

The US space agency, Nasa, spends about $3 billion (£2.4 billion) a year on the space station program, a level of funding that is endorsed by the Trump administration and Congress.

A U.S. House of Representatives committee that oversees Nasa has begun looking at whether to extend the program beyond 2024.

Alternatively the money could be used to speed up planned human space initiatives to the moon and Mars.

<!—->Advertisement

Powered by: Daily Mail

Continue Reading

Technology

Sea levels to rise 15 INCHES by 2100, NASA study warns

Published

on

By

sea levels to rise 15 inches by 2100 nasa study warns

If greenhouse gas emissions continue at their current pace then the vast ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica will continue to melt and could cause sea levels to surge by 15 inches (38 cm) by the end of the century, NASA warns. 

An international project of more than 60 experts calculated how catastrophic the melting ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica would be on the world’s oceans. 

It revealed the vast ice sheet of Greenland could add up to 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) to the global sea level by 2100.

Meanwhile, Antarctica’s vast ice sheets have the potential to cause sea levels to surge by up to 12 inches (30 cm) by the end of the century.  

Scroll down for video  

An international project calculated how catastrophic the melting ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica would be on the world's oceans. Under current greenhouse gas emission levels, it could result in a sea level rise of more than 15 inches by 2100

An international project calculated how catastrophic the melting ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica would be on the world's oceans. Under current greenhouse gas emission levels, it could result in a sea level rise of more than 15 inches by 2100

 An international project calculated how catastrophic the melting ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica would be on the world’s oceans. Under current greenhouse gas emission levels, it could result in a sea level rise of more than 15 inches by 2100

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland spearheaded the project, called the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6).

The findings of the study align with previous findings published in last year’s landmark IPCC paper. 

Data published in that report found Greenland would contribute 3.1 to 10.6 inches (8 to 27 cm) to global sea level rise between 2000-2100 and Antarctica could contribute 1.2 to 11 inches (3 to 28 cm).

It found sea levels rose globally by around 5.9 inches (15cm) during the 20th century, but are currently rising more than twice as fast, at 3.6 mm per year.

The findings of the study align with previous findings published in last year's landmark IPCC report. Data published in that report found Greenland would contribute 3.1 to 10.6 inches (8 to 27 cm) to global sea level rise between 2000-2100 and Antarctica could contribute 1.2 to 11 inches (3 to 28 cm)

The findings of the study align with previous findings published in last year's landmark IPCC report. Data published in that report found Greenland would contribute 3.1 to 10.6 inches (8 to 27 cm) to global sea level rise between 2000-2100 and Antarctica could contribute 1.2 to 11 inches (3 to 28 cm)

The findings of the study align with previous findings published in last year’s landmark IPCC report. Data published in that report found Greenland would contribute 3.1 to 10.6 inches (8 to 27 cm) to global sea level rise between 2000-2100 and Antarctica could contribute 1.2 to 11 inches (3 to 28 cm) 

Greenland’s ice sheet melted more in 2019 than during any other year on record 

Melting from Greenland’s ice sheet broke records last year — losing a total of 532 gigatonnes of mass overall, analysis of satellite data has revealed.

Experts led from Germany found that the ice loss in 2019 was 15 per cent higher than the previous worst year on record — which was 2012.

However, they also noted that favourable conditions in 2017–2018 meant that melting was lower than in any other two-year period between 2003–2019. 

Researchers can assess how fast ice mass is lost by tracking changes in gravity as recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (Grace) missions. 

Melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet is one of the largest contributors to sea level rise and presently contributes an increase of around 0.03 inches (0.76 mm) annually.

In total, sea levels rose by around 0.14 inches (3.5 mm) each year from 2005 to 2017, researchers have calculated.

The findings come a week after a study revealed that Greenland’s glaciers have already passed what researchers have called the ‘point of no return‘.

This, experts warned, means that the ice would now continue to melt away even if global warming could be completely stopped.

<!—->Advertisement

The new results, published this week in a special issue of the journal Cryosphere, help researchers to quantify how severe the melting of ice sheets may be.  

‘One of the biggest uncertainties when it comes to how much sea level will rise in the future is how much the ice sheets will contribute,’ said project leader and ice scientist Sophie Nowicki, now at the University at Buffalo.

‘And how much the ice sheets contribute is really dependent on what the climate will do.’

Just like the IPCC report, the NASA team looked at a low and high emissions scenario. 

For the Greenland ice sheet, this would lead to a global sea level rise of 1.3 inches (3cm) and 3.5 inches (9cm), respectively. 

Antarctica is more complex as the west is shedding ice and contributing to sea level rise while the vast East Antarctic ice sheet can gain mass as warm temperatures increase snowfall.

As a result, anything could happen, with a best case scenario of the continent actually decreasing sea levels by 3.1 inches (7.8 cm).

However, the potential for devastating ice loss means it could also contribute up to 12 in (30 cm) by 2100. 

‘The Amundsen Sea region in West Antarctica and Wilkes Land in East Antarctica are the two regions most sensitive to warming ocean temperatures and changing currents, and will continue to lose large amounts of ice,’ explains Hélène Seroussi, an ice scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. 

‘With these new results, we can focus our efforts in the correct direction and know what needs to be worked on to continue improving the projections.’ 

The new results will help inform the next iteration of the IPCC report scheduled for release in 2022. 

Last year’s special report also found that by 2050, many coastal regions will experience once-a-century weather catastrophes every year, affecting millions. 

It also said that sharp emissions cuts are needed to curb the changes as the world has already experienced 1°C of warming.

This has made the oceans warmer and more acidic and affected fish stocks, while melting glaciers and ice sheets. 

KEY FINDINGS OF THE 2019 IPCC OCEAN REPORT  

– Sea levels are rising at unprecedented rates, accelerating in recent decades as ice has been melting increasingly fast from Greenland and Antarctica.

They are set to rise at an increasing rate and will continue to do so beyond the year 2100 whatever level of emissions cuts are achieved.

Sea levels are set to rise by 30-60cm by 2100 with strong action to cut emissions and by around 60-110cm with high levels of pollution. Several metres of sea-level rise is predicted for 2300 in a high-emissions world.

– Since the mid-20th century, shrinking ice in the Arctic and the world’s high mountains have affected food and water security and quality, health, cultures of indigenous people, tourism and recreation such as skiing.

– Coastal communities are facing multiple threats linked to climate change , including more intense tropical cyclones, extreme sea levels and flooding, marine heatwaves, sea ice loss and melting permafrost – areas of previously permanently frozen ground.

The risk of erosion and flooding will increase significantly under all scenarios for future emissions, with annual coastal flood damages projected to increase 100 to 1,000 times by 2100.

– This century the ocean is set to shift to ‘unprecedented’ conditions, with higher temperatures and more acidic waters as carbon dioxide dissolves into the seas, while extreme El Nino and La Nina events, which affect global temperatures and weather, will become more frequent.

– Marine heatwaves have very likely doubled in frequency since 1982 and are increasing in intensity.

– Wildfires are set to increase across the tundra and cold northern forests, as well as some mountain regions.

– Marine wildlife and fish stocks are set to decline, while marine heatwaves and more acidic oceans will harm corals.

– Nearly half of the world’s coastal wetlands, which protect from erosion and flooding and are important carbon stores, have been lost over the last 100 years, as a result of human activity, sea level rises, warming and extreme events.

– Fragile habitats such as seagrass meadows and kelp forests are at high risk if global warming exceeds 2C above pre-industrial temperatures, while warm water corals are already at high risk and face ‘a very high risk’ even if global warming is limited to 1.5C.

– Some island nations are likely to become uninhabitable due to climate change.

– The resources provided by oceans and frozen areas can be supported by protecting and restoring them and reducing pollution and other pressures.

– Urgent and ambitious emissions reductions alongside coordinated, sustained and increasingly ambitious action to help people adapt to the changes that are taking place.

<!—->Advertisement

Powered by: Daily Mail

Continue Reading

Trending

Copyright © 2020 DiazHub.