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World’s oldest trees are NOT immortal but just ageing very slowly, study finds 

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worlds oldest trees are not immortal but just ageing very slowly study finds

The world’s oldest trees are not immortal, but just ageing very slowly, a plant biologist has concluded in a new report. 

The oldest trees on Earth have stood for nearly 5,000 years and have therefore appeared to hold great promise that some organisms on this planet are eternal. 

Biologists have long-wondered to what extent these ancient organisms undergo senescence – the process of physically deteriorating as they age. 

But although signs of senescence in long-lived trees may be almost imperceptible to people, this does not mean that they’re immortal, a plant scientist claims. 

Inevitable hormonal changes eventually leads to mechanical constraints and death, he says, pointing to a recent study of ginkgoes, one of the world’s longest-lived trees.

Ginkgoes, one of the world's longest-lived trees, display age-related reductions in the contents of auxin, a plant hormone produced in the stem tip that promotes cell elongation

Ginkgoes, one of the world's longest-lived trees, display age-related reductions in the contents of auxin, a plant hormone produced in the stem tip that promotes cell elongation

Ginkgoes, one of the world’s longest-lived trees, display age-related reductions in the contents of auxin, a plant hormone produced in the stem tip that promotes cell elongation

‘The measure of time is something that we have invented as humans, and to a millennial tree, it does not matter at all,’ said plant biologist Professor Sergi Munné-Bosch at the University of Barcelona, who details tree mortality in a new research paper.

‘When we try to study these organisms, we’re really astonished that they live so long, but this doesn’t mean that they’re immortal. 

‘They live so long because they have many mechanisms to reduce a lot of the wear and tear of ageing.’   

The idea of becoming immortal has always been extremely attractive to humans, Munné-Bosch says. 

Long-lived trees have received special attention in the study of ageing, as ‘a sort of mirror’ in which we could potentially see ourselves reflected in our efforts to achieve greater longevity. 

Trees have a variety of ways to reduce their chances of death from ageing, including ‘building life on death’ by growing new shoots from trunks composed of 90 per cent non-living biomass. 

Indeed, long-lived trees, such as ginkgoes and bristlecone pines, are mostly formed of dead tissue, especially when they grow old. 

The capacity of the vascular cambium – the main growth tissue in the stems and roots of plants – to resume growth each year allows life to be built around ‘a sea’ of dead plant mass.

The capacity of the vascular cambium to resume growth each year allows life to be built around a sea of dead organic mass, making trees exceptional long-lived organisms at the limits of life and death

The capacity of the vascular cambium to resume growth each year allows life to be built around a sea of dead organic mass, making trees exceptional long-lived organisms at the limits of life and death

The capacity of the vascular cambium to resume growth each year allows life to be built around a sea of dead organic mass, making trees exceptional long-lived organisms at the limits of life and death

But despite their well-evolved methods to prolonging the ageing process, they still undergo physiological stress associated with senescence, which will ultimately prevent immortality. 

‘They have limits – there are physical and mechanical constraints that limit their ability to live indefinitely,’ said Munné-Bosch.  

The oldest individual tree in the world is thought to be in the US, where a Great Basin bristlecone pine in California’s White Mountains has been aged at more than 5,000 years.

A Fortingall Yew in Perthshire, Scotland, is believed to be the oldest tree in the UK, meanwhile, with an estimated age between 2,000 and 3,000 years, according to the Woodland Trust. 

The famous yew tree in the churchyard of the village of Fortingall in highland Perthshire. The tree is thought to be around 3,000 to 5,000 years old

The famous yew tree in the churchyard of the village of Fortingall in highland Perthshire. The tree is thought to be around 3,000 to 5,000 years old

The famous yew tree in the churchyard of the village of Fortingall in highland Perthshire. The tree is thought to be around 3,000 to 5,000 years old

Tress can be aged by measuring their girth – specifically the rings that develop over time that increase that girth. 

But because of their extreme lifespans, the effects of ageing over time must be studied at a somewhat impossible timescale.  

To see the real-time effects of ageing on long-lived trees, scientists would have to conduct studies that last hundreds if not thousands of years. 

Little is known about what the process of senescence looks like in trees, and also finding enough trees with a lifespan of several thousands of years to find similarities can be challenging. 

‘When a species of tree can live for five millennia, it’s very difficult to find even two trees that are between two and five millennia,’ said Munné-Bosch. 

A study published earlier this year in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences said one species of ginkgo – G. biloba – may ‘escape senescence at the whole-plant level’.

However, Munné-Bosch reports in his research paper that ginkgoes display age-related reductions in the contents of auxin, a plant hormone produced in the stem tip that promotes cell elongation.   

Ginkgoes (C) and bristlecone pines (D), are mostly formed of dead tissue, especially when they grow old

Ginkgoes (C) and bristlecone pines (D), are mostly formed of dead tissue, especially when they grow old

Ginkgoes (C) and bristlecone pines (D), are mostly formed of dead tissue, especially when they grow old

These findings fit in with reduced cell division and expansion capacity, eventually leading to mechanical constraints and death.    

For old trees, dying of senescence is a possibility, but the probability of dying from other causes, such as disease, is significantly higher. 

‘They don’t have to worry about senescence because they have other things that worry them more,’ Munné-Bosch said. 

Studying the ways trees prolong senescence is important as research conducted in trees and long-lived plant species can inform other disciplines.

For example, aspects of regenerative medicine are based on mechanisms that have already evolved in trees.

Professor Munné-Bosch has published his research paper in the journal Trends in Plant Science

WHAT CAN TREE RINGS TELL US? 

Trees can live for hundreds—and sometimes even thousands—of years. 

Over this long lifetime, a tree can experience a variety of environmental conditions: wet years, dry years, cold years, hot years, early frosts, forest fires and more. 

Concentric rings in tree trunks tell us how old the tree is, and what the weather was like during each year of the tree’s life. 

The light-coloured rings represent wood that grew in the spring and early summer, while the dark rings represent wood that grew in the late summer and fall. One light ring plus one dark ring equals one year of the tree’s life.

Because trees are sensitive to local climate conditions, such as rain and temperature, they give scientists some information about that area’s local climate in the past.

Concentric rings in tree trunks tell us how old the tree is, and what the weather was like during each year of the tree’s life. One light ring plus one dark ring equals one year of the tree’s life

Concentric rings in tree trunks tell us how old the tree is, and what the weather was like during each year of the tree’s life. One light ring plus one dark ring equals one year of the tree’s life

Concentric rings in tree trunks tell us how old the tree is, and what the weather was like during each year of the tree’s life. One light ring plus one dark ring equals one year of the tree’s life

 For example, tree rings usually grow wider in warm, wet years and they are thinner in years when it is cold and dry.

 If the tree has experienced stressful conditions, such as a drought, the tree might hardly grow at all in those years.

Very old trees can offer clues about what the climate was like long before measurements were recorded. This field—the study of past climates—is called paleoclimatology.

Paleoclimatologists rely upon natural sources of climate data, such as tree rings, cores drilled from Antarctic ice and sediment collected from the bottom of lakes and oceans. These sources, called proxies, can extend our knowledge of weather and climate from hundreds to millions of years 

Combined with weather and climate information from satellites, they can help scientists model major climate events that shaped our planet in the past. 

And these models can also help us make predictions about what climate patterns to expect in the future. 

 SOURCE: NASA

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US military tests wearables that detect illness days before symptoms

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us military tests wearables that detect illness days before symptoms

The US military is testing a smart watch and ring system capable of detecting illnesses two days before the wearer develops symptoms.

Called Rapid Analysis of Threat Exposure (RATE), the project is using Garmin and Oura devices that have been program with artificial intelligence trained on nearly 250,000 coronavirus cases and other sicknesses.

The system notifies the user of an oncoming illness using a scale from one to 100 on how likely it will happen over the next 48 hours.

Military officials note that ‘Within two weeks of us going live we had our first successful COVID-19 detect.’

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The US military is testing a smart watch and ring system capable of detecting illness two days before the wearer develops symptoms. Called Rapid Analysis of Threat Exposure (RATE), the project is using Garmin and Oura devices that have been program with artificial intelligence trained on nearly 250,000 coronavirus cases and other sicknesses

The US military is testing a smart watch and ring system capable of detecting illness two days before the wearer develops symptoms. Called Rapid Analysis of Threat Exposure (RATE), the project is using Garmin and Oura devices that have been program with artificial intelligence trained on nearly 250,000 coronavirus cases and other sicknesses

The US military is testing a smart watch and ring system capable of detecting illness two days before the wearer develops symptoms. Called Rapid Analysis of Threat Exposure (RATE), the project is using Garmin and Oura devices that have been program with artificial intelligence trained on nearly 250,000 coronavirus cases and other sicknesses

RATE was developed by the Defense Innovation Unit (DIU) in collaboration with Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and Philips Healthcare.

The system was first announced in 2019 as an 18-month project and has since been updated with a new algorithm trained with Philips’ massive patient bedside database, Defense One reports.

The watch and ring collect 165 biomakers, which are transferred to the cloud where it is processed to provide them with an hourly score through a secure website, DIU Human Systems Director Dr. Christian Whitchurch explained.

Researchers working with RATE have determined that a person’s physiology shows subtle changes when exposed to infectious agents.

The watch and ring collect 165 biomakers, which are transferred to the cloud where it is processed to provide them with an hourly score through a secure website

The watch and ring collect 165 biomakers, which are transferred to the cloud where it is processed to provide them with an hourly score through a secure website

The watch and ring collect 165 biomakers, which are transferred to the cloud where it is processed to provide them with an hourly score through a secure website

DTRA Science and Technology Manager Ed Argenta said identifying the changes early is critical to limiting the spread of the illness, as ‘pre-symptomatic individuals don’t yet show signs of infection, and can unwittingly spread the disease to others.’

The RATE model was trained via AI and ML on 293,109 participants, including 256,320 controls and 36,782 with known hospital acquired infections and correlated to these common attributes: temperature, pulse oximeter and cardiac measures, he explained.

Dr. Joe Frassica, the chief medical officer and head of Philips Research North America, the company assisting DTRA, said ”As we continue to get new data from monitored cases of COVID-19, we will be able to refine the RATE-COVID algorithm in the near future. We hope that this will not only allow us to protect people from contracting the disease, but to also intervene early and treat those who are infected.”

According to Defense.gov, more than 64,000 military personnel have tested positive for coronavirus and over 43,000 of those cases have recovered

According to Defense.gov, more than 64,000 military personnel have tested positive for coronavirus and over 43,000 of those cases have recovered

According to Defense.gov, more than 64,000 military personnel have tested positive for coronavirus and over 43,000 of those cases have recovered 

The Defense Department is set to oversee an extensive rollout of RATE devices to nearly 5,000 people in the coming weeks, Whitchurch said.

The system is currently being tested on about 700 people in the US Navy and Office of Secretary Defense. 

Lt. Col. Jeff ‘Mach’ Schneider, a DIU program manager told C4ISRNET: ‘As we continue to collect data and refine the algorithm, priority will continue to be provided to those first responders and those that have had to adopt new operational tempo to support their duty obligations.’

According to Defense.gov, more than 64,000 military personnel have tested positive for coronavirus and over 43,000 of those cases have recovered.

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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HONOR MagicBook Pro: review of high-performance laptop, on sale now

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honor magicbook pro review of high performance laptop on sale now

Are you looking for the best laptop for gaming, video and photo editing, or for streaming movies and TV shows? If so, you might want to consider HONOR’s latest offering.

Whether it’s for professional use or for leisure, the high performance MagicBook Pro offers fast processing, impressive battery life, immersive audio and visual quality for a wide range of tasks and lifestyles.

The laptop is currently reduced from £1,019.97 down to £849.99. The brand is also treating its customers to a free HONOR MagicWatch 2 or HONOR Magic Buds and HONOR Router 3 with the purchase of the laptop.

The high performance MagicBook Pro offers fast processing, impressive battery life, immersive audio and visual quality for a wide range of tasks and lifestyles

The high performance MagicBook Pro offers fast processing, impressive battery life, immersive audio and visual quality for a wide range of tasks and lifestyles

The high performance MagicBook Pro offers fast processing, impressive battery life, immersive audio and visual quality for a wide range of tasks and lifestyles 

The sleek MagicBook Pro boasts a lightweight and durable aluminium design, weighing just 1.7kg and 16.1 mm thick at its thickest point. It is available in a smart Space Grey colour.

There are multiple ports, including: one 3.5mm headphone jack and two USB 3.2 Gen 1 port on the right, plus one USB 3.2 Gen 1 port, one USB-C port and an HDMI port on the left.

Its narrow 4.8mm bezel is all thanks to the concealed display controller board. The webcam has also been moved from above the screen to under a key. While I’m not a fan of the unflattering camera angle (double chin alert) it does offer better security and means it is only visible when you need it.

Speaking of security, the laptop also features a finger print power button, meaning the only person getting access to your laptop is you.

The 2020 MagicBook Pro features a 6.1 inch HONOR FullView display with a 90 per cent screen-to-body ratio, making it aesthetically beautiful. The laptop’s aspect ratio is 16:9 aspect ratio and resolution is 1920 x 1080.

It features 100 per cent sRGB, offering HONOR’s best colour display yet. The truest to life colours and flicker-free technology are designed to help creative workflow, meaning it is the perfect device for productivity, as well as editing photos and videos. The flicker-free display also helps to reduce blue light in darker environment, meaning less eye strain and fatigue.

Virtual surround speakers are perfect for using streaming services like Netflix and Disney+, as well as watching YouTube videos and playing online games. The laptop offers a truly immersive experience and decent sound quality.

The MagicBook Pro has up to 11 hours all-day battery life, and a super fast charge offering 50 per cent charge in the first 30 minutes. I could also play online games in their highest resolution for at least a few hours without having the laptop on charge. 

The sleek MagicBook Pro boasts a lightweight and durable aluminium design, weighing just 1.7kg and 16.1 mm thick at its thickest point

The sleek MagicBook Pro boasts a lightweight and durable aluminium design, weighing just 1.7kg and 16.1 mm thick at its thickest point

Its narrow 4.8mm bezel is all thanks to its concealed display controller board. The webcam has also been moved from above the screen to under a key

Its narrow 4.8mm bezel is all thanks to its concealed display controller board. The webcam has also been moved from above the screen to under a key

The sleek MagicBook Pro boasts a lightweight and durable aluminium design, weighing just 1.7kg and 16.1 mm thick at its thickest point

Dual fan and dual heat pipes offer sustained performance and efficient thermal management, keeping the laptop cool even when you’re streaming a high resolution game, movie or powerful software.

The new MagicBook Pro comes equipped with the all-new AMD Ryzen™ 5 4600H Processor to help improve battery life, as well as an ultra-fast 512GB SSD storage drive and up to 16gb DDR4 dual-channel RAM for faster gaming performance. 

Windows 10 is pre-installed, along with a one-month trial of Office 365. It is a shame HONOR didn’t pre-install Microsoft Office like they did with the MagicBook 14, especially when this is being described as a laptop ‘for professionals’. 

Overall, HONOR has gone above and beyond with the 2020 MagicBook Pro and I am thoroughly impressed with its gaming, streaming performance. The narrow bezel and large screen is absolutely fantastic. The attractive sleek design and bright screen is also a big pro.

I would have preferred a larger hard drive, purely to be able to store more games and large video files, so I will have to continue storing my video edits on an external hard drive.

In terms of value for money, I think the MagicBook Pro offers a great deal of premium features at a lower price point, making it accessible for young professionals and students.

MailOnline may earn commission on sales from the links on this page. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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Technology

HONOR MagicBook Pro review

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honor magicbook pro review

Are you looking for the best laptop for gaming, video and photo editing, or for streaming movies and TV shows? If so, you might want to consider HONOR’s latest offering.

Whether it’s for professional use or for leisure, the high performance MagicBook Pro offers fast processing, impressive battery life, immersive audio and visual quality for a wide range of tasks and lifestyles.

The laptop is currently reduced from £1,019.97 down to £849.99. The brand is also treating its customers to a free HONOR MagicWatch 2 or HONOR Magic Buds and HONOR Router 3 with the purchase of the laptop.

The high performance MagicBook Pro offers fast processing, impressive battery life, immersive audio and visual quality for a wide range of tasks and lifestyles

The high performance MagicBook Pro offers fast processing, impressive battery life, immersive audio and visual quality for a wide range of tasks and lifestyles

The high performance MagicBook Pro offers fast processing, impressive battery life, immersive audio and visual quality for a wide range of tasks and lifestyles 

The sleek MagicBook Pro boasts a lightweight and durable aluminium design, weighing just 1.7kg and 16.1 mm thick at its thickest point. It is available in a smart Space Grey colour.

There are multiple ports, including: one 3.5mm headphone jack and two USB 3.2 Gen 1 port on the right, plus one USB 3.2 Gen 1 port, one USB-C port and an HDMI port on the left.

Its narrow 4.8mm bezel is all thanks to the concealed display controller board. The webcam has also been moved from above the screen to under a key. While I’m not a fan of the unflattering camera angle (double chin alert) it does offer better security and means it is only visible when you need it.

Speaking of security, the laptop also features a finger print power button, meaning the only person getting access to your laptop is you.

The 2020 MagicBook Pro features a 6.1 inch HONOR FullView display with a 90 per cent screen-to-body ratio, making it aesthetically beautiful. The laptop’s aspect ratio is 16:9 aspect ratio and resolution is 1920 x 1080.

It features 100 per cent sRGB, offering HONOR’s best colour display yet. The truest to life colours and flicker-free technology are designed to help creative workflow, meaning it is the perfect device for productivity, as well as editing photos and videos. The flicker-free display also helps to reduce blue light in darker environment, meaning less eye strain and fatigue.

Virtual surround speakers are perfect for using streaming services like Netflix and Disney+, as well as watching YouTube videos and playing online games. The laptop offers a truly immersive experience and decent sound quality.

The MagicBook Pro has up to 11 hours all-day battery life, and a super fast charge offering 50 per cent charge in the first 30 minutes. I could also play online games in their highest resolution for at least a few hours without having the laptop on charge. 

The sleek MagicBook Pro boasts a lightweight and durable aluminium design, weighing just 1.7kg and 16.1 mm thick at its thickest point

The sleek MagicBook Pro boasts a lightweight and durable aluminium design, weighing just 1.7kg and 16.1 mm thick at its thickest point

Its narrow 4.8mm bezel is all thanks to its concealed display controller board. The webcam has also been moved from above the screen to under a key

Its narrow 4.8mm bezel is all thanks to its concealed display controller board. The webcam has also been moved from above the screen to under a key

The sleek MagicBook Pro boasts a lightweight and durable aluminium design, weighing just 1.7kg and 16.1 mm thick at its thickest point

Dual fan and dual heat pipes offer sustained performance and efficient thermal management, keeping the laptop cool even when you’re streaming a high resolution game, movie or powerful software.

The new MagicBook Pro comes equipped with the all-new AMD Ryzen™ 5 4600H Processor to help improve battery life, as well as an ultra-fast 512GB SSD storage drive and up to 16gb DDR4 dual-channel RAM for faster gaming performance. 

Windows 10 is pre-installed, along with a one month trial of Office 365. It is a shame HONOR didn’t pre-install Microsoft Office like they did with the MagicBook 14, especially when this is being described as a laptop ‘for professionals’. 

Overall, HONOR has gone above and beyond with the 2020 MagicBook Pro and I am thoroughly impressed with its gaming, streaming performance. The narrow bezel and large screen is also absolutely fantastic. The attractive sleek design and bright screen is also a big pro.

I would have preferred a larger hard drive, purely to be able to store more games and large video files, so I will have to continue storing my video edits on an external hard drive.

In terms of value for money, I think the MagicBook Pro offers a great deal of premium features at a lower price point, making it accessible for young professionals and students.

MailOnline may earn commission on sales from the links on this page. 

This post first appeared on dailymail.co.uk

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